acid rain


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acid rain

or

acid deposition,

form of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, or hail) containing high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids (pH below 5.5–5.6). Produced when sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides combine with atmospheric moisture, acid rain can contaminate drinking water, damage vegetation and aquatic life, and erode buildings and monuments. Automobile exhausts and the burning of high-sulfur industrial fuels are thought to be the main causes, but natural sources, such as volcanic gases and forest fires, may also be significant. It has been an increasingly serious problem since the 1950s, particularly in the NE United States, Canada, and W Europe, especially Scandinavia.

Acid rain became a political issue in the 1980s, when Canada claimed that pollutants from the United States were contaminating its forests and waters. Since then regulations have been enacted in North America and Europe to curb sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants; these include the U.S. Clean Air Act (as reauthorized and expanded in 1990) and the Helsinki protocol (1985), in which 21 European nations promised to reduce emissions by specified amounts. To assess the effectiveness of reductions a comprehensive study, comparing data from lakes and rivers across N Europe and North America, was conducted by an international team of scientists in 1999. The results they reported were mixed: while sulfates (the main acidifying water pollutant from acid rain) were lower, only some areas showed a decrease in overall acidity. It remained to be determined whether more time or a greater reduction in sulfur emissions was needed to reduce freshwater acidity in all areas. See air pollutionair pollution,
contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the
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; forestforest,
a dense growth of trees, together with other plants, covering a large area of land. The science concerned with the study, preservation, and management of forests is forestry.
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; pollutionpollution,
contamination of the environment as a result of human activities. The term pollution refers primarily to the fouling of air, water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid waste).
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.

Acid rain

The precipitation of dilute solutions of strong mineral acids, formed by the mixing in the atmosphere of various industrial pollutants, primarily sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, with naturally occurring oxygen and water vapor.

acid rain

[¦as·əd ′rān]
(meteorology)
Precipitation in the form of water drops that incorporates anthropogenic acids and acid materials.

acid rain

rain that contains a high concentration of pollutants, chiefly sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal or oil
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1984, New York State passed the first law in the nation to control acid rain, the State Acid Deposition Control Act.
When acid rain flows via soils in a watershed, aluminum is leached out from soils into the lakes and streams present in that watershed.
I have asked scientists at Cardiff University if a grand recovery from the effects of acid rain is on the way or has nature in its inimitable way developed a strain of fish that can withstand the strains of acid rain.
"Where the trees are, we're getting lots of acid rain from the oil sands and we're just trying to see the effects on it, what new elements we find in the tree cores," said Klein.
The term, 'acid rain' refers to a phenomenon in which falling rain sometimes can be acidic.
* Scottish chemist Robert Angus Smith coined the term acid rain in his 1872 book Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology.
Many people have received the acid rain message over the past several days.
With average acidity in rivers falling due to improvements in the levels of acid rain, the researchers expected up to 29 insect species should have re-colonised the improving Welsh streams.
Acid rain is a complex environmental problem which affects the United States and many other countries around the world.
The trail is a living laboratory of protected slices of land that could reflect environmental changes such as higher ozone levels, acid rain, smog, and other air quality indicators.
Since the Ontario government introduced the Countdown Acid Rain program the company has spent close to $1 billion to reduce S02 emission in its Greater Sudbury operations.