trauma

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Related to acoustic trauma: Temporary Threshold Shift

trauma

1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound

Trauma

 

an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.

REFERENCES

See references under and .

V. F. POZHARISKII

trauma

[′trau̇·mə]
(medicine)
An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
(psychology)
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
Each frequency and gap-condition were repeated 15 times and each test was performed before and after the acoustic trauma. Again the data obtained were checked by eye by the same two experimenters as above via a custom-made Matlab program.
Appearance of free radicals in the guinea pig inner ear after noise-induced acoustic trauma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1995;252:504-8.
In the literature there are some reports pointing to a higher sensitivity to acoustic trauma in the case of patients with AN and, on the other hand, indicating noise as one of the causative factors in AN.
The underlying mechanism can be acoustic trauma damaging cochlear hair cells [27], and these irreversible insults elevate the auditory threshold [28].
Steroids with anti-TNF-[alpha] effects are the most preferred drugs for the recovery of hearing in acoustic trauma [18].
Blast injuries can result in acoustic trauma either in isolation or in the presence of a head injury.
Most common organs injured were limbs 593 (48.4%) followed by neck injuries 50 cases, (4.1%), chest injuries 61cases (5%), head injuries 30 cases (2.4%), abdominal injuries 62 cases (5%), eye and face injuries 52 cases (4.2%), acoustic trauma 3 cases (0.2%), and vascular injuries 9 cases (0.7%) (fig-1).
Recognized causes of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after tympanoplasty with and without mastoidectomy include acoustic trauma from manipulation of the ossicles, the noise generated by suctioning and, in the case of mastoidectomy, the noise generated by temporal bone drilling.
Investigators checking a computer in his flat also discovered he had looked up migraines, impaired vision and acoustic trauma.
He repeatedly looked for details on manic depression, migraines, impaired vision and acoustic trauma, as well as on cockpit doors and security features.
This means that we can also get closer to target those deficits, for example by promoting myelin repair after acoustic trauma or during age related hearing loss." Dr Hamann said the work will help prevention as well as progression into finding appropriate cures for hearing loss and possibly tinnitus developing from hearing loss.
"Cats, dogs and other animals are gifted with highly receptive hearing that is no less than 10 times more sensitive than that of humans and firecracker explosions from Piccolo to Super Lolo can cause acoustic trauma for them," explained Animal Kingdom Foundation legal officer, Heidi Marquez-Caguioa.

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