Genetic improvement of White Spruce mechanical wood traits--Early screening by means of acoustic velocity
. Forests 4:575-594.
Acoustic impedances z of steel and GFRP (1) are defined as a product of their densities p and acoustic velocity
Several works have addressed the effects of acoustic velocity
excitations or fuel mixture perturbations on the flow-field-flame interactions and have established the response of significant properties of the reacting system with the prospect of devising general purpose transfer functions for use in the design process.
The USGS has been gauging stream flow at the chosen bridge sites for long periods, but detailed monitoring including continuous measurement (30-minute intervals) of pier scour using fathometers and velocity measurements using acoustic velocity
meter has been underway since 2002 as part of a large scour study for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) .
The C-SAM tool measures the acoustic-impedance value of a mold compound in one step, without having to measure the acoustic velocity
and density separately.
According to the above discussion, IOP should have a direct effect on the acoustic impedance, which is the product of density and acoustic velocity
. However, due to the complexity of the deformation process, an explicit expression of the relationship could not be found.
The AlN films were proven to benefit SAW applications because of the high acoustic velocity
, superior temperature, chemical stability, and compatibility with the MEMS process .
The theory of this technique is in accordance with the relevance between acoustic velocity
and temperature .
where [v.sub.p] is the acoustic velocity
(longitudinal wave); d is the distance of ultrasonic promulgation in the samples, which is the diameter of the samples; [t.sub.1] and [t.sub.0] are received time and transmitting time, respectively.
where [p.sub.ai] is the incident acoustic wave amplitude, [p.sub.ar] is the reflective acoustic wave amplitude, [p.sub.at] is the transmissive acoustic wave amplitude, [v.sub.i], [v.sub.r], and [v.sub.t] are the corresponding air particle velocities, [[rho].sub.0] is the air density, [c.sub.0] is the acoustic velocity
in the air, w is the angular frequency, and k is the wave number defined as [omega]/[c.sub.0].
Physical oceanography study reveals that the main influencing factors on the acoustic velocity
of seawater are temperature, pressure, and salinity (Feng, 1999; Jones, 1999) which are also correlated with depth.