Stevens, "Acrylamide copolymer thickener for aqueous systems," U.S.
Inverse emulsion and microemulsion polymerization have been also employed to synthetize acrylamide copolymers [11, 14-16].
Application: Papermakers can adjust the balance between retention efficiency and formation uniformity by adding high-mass acrylamide copolymer
retention aids earlier or later to the process.
* Acrylamide is a chemical used primarily to make substances called polyacrylamide and acrylamide copolymers
. These are used in industrial processes, such as the production of paper, dyes, and plastics, and in the treatment of drinking water and wastewater, including sewage.
In contrast, cationic acrylamide copolymers
containing amide monomers such as APTAC and MAPTAC are reasonably stable up to a pH of 9-10.
However, these acrylamide copolymers
are less thermally stable and easy to hydrolyze at severe operating conditions especially in high temperature and caustic environment.
Wang, "Synthesis and aqueous solution properties of hydrophobically modified anionic acrylamide copolymers," Journal of Polymer Science B: Polymer Physics, vol.
Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers," Macromolecules, vol.
It is reported that in end-product compositions, the concentration of residual acrylamide monomer in such acrylamide copolymers
can rise during storage.
Several new thickening agents, the Himosap series,based on acrylamide copolymers
. These products show remarkable thickening ability in high salt systems and have been shown to maintain viscosity over a broad range of pH, while providing clear solutions.