actin


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actin,

a protein abundantly present in many cells, especially muscle cells, that significantly contributes to the cell's structure and motility. Actin can very quickly assemble into long polymer rods called microfilaments. These microfilaments have a variety of roles—they form part of the cell's cytoskeleton, they interact with myosinmyosin
, one of the two major protein constituents responsible for contraction of muscle. In muscle cells myosin is arranged in long filaments called thick filaments that lie parallel to the microfilaments of actin.
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 to permit movement of the cell, and they pinch the cell into two during cell division. In muscle contraction, filaments of actin and myosin alternately unlink and chemically link in a sliding action. The energy for this reaction is supplied by adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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.
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actin

[′ak·tən]
(biochemistry)
A muscle protein that is the chief constituent of the Z-band myofilaments of each sarcomere.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
CaMKII is uniquely suited to interact with actin, whose molecules self-assemble into long, twisting filaments.
The thin filaments (~10 nm of diameter) are composed mainly by actin, tropomyosin, the troponin complex with its three subunits, tropomodulin and nebulin (Gordon et al.).
At the center of these areas, fibrous actin material was distributed (Fig.
In this context, actin reorganization is required during stem cell differentiation, as well as adhesion, cellular spreading, force distribution, stress fiber formation, and others, all of which are completely dependent on the cytoskeleton, a complex scaffold constituted of different kinds of filaments distributed throughout the cytoplasm.
The relationship between the amount of nestin and actin detected in electrophoresed samples was calculated, after performing a densitometric analysis.
(32) Interactions between myosin and actin change during the myosin displacement (upper trace in Fig.
The protein profile of neutrophils attached to fibronectin in the presence of LPS contained the same proteins as the control cells and additionally the following: (i) MMP-9, a tertiary granule component; (ii) cathepsin G and defensins, powerful bactericides of primary granules; and (iii) a number of cytosolic proteins such as actin, glycolytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and S100 proteins (Table 3).
Polarized chemotactic cell migration is associated with the formation of polarized networks of actin filaments and microtubules together with the asymmetric distribution of signaling molecules including PI3Ks, PTEN, and Rho GTPases [10, 11].
For actin visualization, the slides were incubated with TRITC-Phalloidin (dilution 2 [micro]M, Sigma) in PBS with 1% BSA and 0.2% Triton X-100 for 30 min.