Know your standard: clarifying the CIE action spectrum
. Photochemistry and Photobiology 87:483-486.
In many cases, these instruments have filters that shape the detector responsivity to approximate a particular spectral response function (action spectrum) for a specific application.
Diffey, A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, CIE J.
The action spectrum
for plankton death is similar to that for sunburning in humans, so the program can indicate the killing UV flux with and without the ozone hole.
So he and Van der Leun fine-tuned data on UV's skin carcinogenicity -- its action spectrum -- in this mouse to account for the longer path UV rays must traverse through human skin.
This adjustment for the long-wavelength (A) portion of the UV spectrum now indicates that UV-A offers five times the human cancer risk seen in the mouse action spectrum. The finding supports earlier warnings about the cancer threat posed by tanning salons that use lamps emitting UV-A (SN: 5/3/86, p.281).
Toward that progress, the German Institute for Standardization released a prestandard, DIN V 5031-100, defining an action spectrum
for nocturnal melatonin suppression ([S.sub.ms]([lambda])) lumen, using the empirical Gall function, c([lambda]).
An action spectrum
for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, noncone photoreceptor system in humans.
He now believes, as stated in a letter in LD+A, September 2010, that the phenomena was triggered not by rods but instead by the intrinsically photo responsive ganglion nerve cells (iPRG) making the action spectrum
"cirtopic." This subsequently makes the S/P moniker a misnomer; it should be C/P.) He proposed that light sources could be rated in scotopic lumens as well as conventional photopic lumens.
Vitamin D effective daily dose is the daily dose of UVR wavelengths relevant to the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol into previtamin D in the skin, based on the vitamin D action spectrum (MacLaughlin et al.
The UV index (WHO 2002) gives an indication of the UV intensity at solar noon using the action spectrum to produce erythema.
(16.) Brainard, G.C., et al., Action spectrum
for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor.