glaucoma

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Related to acute glaucoma: Corneal ulcer

glaucoma

(glôkō`mə), ocular disorder characterized by pressure within the eyeball caused by an excessive amount of aqueous humor (the fluid substance filling the eyeball). This causes pressure against the optic nerve and compression of the blood vessels of the eye—the resulting impairment of vision ranges from slight abnormalities to total blindness. Chronic open-angle glaucoma is the result of impeded drainage of aqueous humor. In acute angle-closure glaucoma, the anterior chamber of the eye is shallower and the iris may obstruct the meshwork at the entrance of the canal of Schlemm. Although glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the United States, with timely treatment blindness is almost always avoided.

Chronic glaucoma begins gradually over a period of months or years, usually in patients over the age of 40. There are no symptoms in the early stages, and the condition can be detected only by measurement of the intraocular pressure. Such an examination is recommended every three years for all persons over the age of 20. As the disease progresses, often the only symptom is a gradual loss of peripheral vision. Chronic glaucoma can usually be controlled with eye drops or pills that increase the outflow or decrease the production of aqueous humor; laser treatment is also effective in the early stages. If treatment is continued throughout life, useful vision will be preserved in most cases; untreated individuals will gradually become blind.

Acute closed-angle glaucoma, which accounts for only 10% of the incidence of the disease, begins abruptly with severe pain and blurred vision. It is a medical emergency that causes permanent blindness in two to five days if left untreated. Surgery is usually necessary.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Glaucoma

 

(also called “yellow water” or “green water” in Russian—in glaucoma the region of the pupil sometimes begins to gleam with a yellowish gray or bluish gray light), a disease of the eyes, the principal symptom of which is an increase in intraocular pressure with a reduction of vision.

Intraocular pressure in glaucoma sometimes reaches 80 mm of mercury, or 10.67 kilonewtons (kN)/m2. (Normal pressure is 18-27 mm of mercury, or 2.4-3.6 kN/m2.) The pressure in the eye may rise spontaneously (primary glaucoma) or as the result of a previous or current disease of the eye (secondary glaucoma). The underlying cause of the disease is a disruption of the circulation of intraocular fluid—most commonly, difficulty in its drainage. Glaucoma usually develops in the elderly, often affecting both eyes, and as a rule proceeds chronically; in the absence of systematic treatment it is progressive. Glaucomas may be defined as either congestive (narrow angle), characterized by periodic clouding of vision, rainbowed halos around a light source, and a sensation of pressure in and around the eye, simple (open angle), in which these subjective phenomena are absent. In any form of glaucoma visual acuity gradually diminishes, the field of vision becomes limited, and the optic nerve atrophies. An acute attack of glaucoma, characterized by an abrupt rise in intraocular pressure, may develop at any stage of the disease; severe pains in and around the eye develop, there is reddening of the eyes, edema and clouding of the cornea, dilatation of the pupil, and reduction of vision, sometimes to the point of blindness. There is often accompanying nausea and vomiting. Glaucoma is the most common cause of blindness. The treatment may be medical or sometimes surgical. In the USSR prevention consists of examination of persons over 40 years of age and treatment of patients with established glaucoma at out-patient prevention and treatment clinics. Prevention of blindness from glaucoma involves early diagnosis of the disease and systematic treatment.

REFERENCES

Averbakh, M. I. “Glaukoma.” In Oftalmologicheskie ocherki. Moscow, 1949.
Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po glaznym bolezniam, vol. 2. [Edited by V. N. Arkhangel’skii.] Moscow, 1960.

M. L. KRASNOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

glaucoma

[glau̇′kō·mə]
(medicine)
A disease of the eye characterized by increased fluid pressure within the eyeball.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

glaucoma

a disease of the eye in which pressure within the eyeball damages the optic disc, impairing vision, sometimes progressing to blindness
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Zhuo, "HMGB1 promotes the activation of NLRP3 and caspase-8 inflammasomes via NF-[kappa]B pathway in acute glaucoma," Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol.
The number of patients who were referred to the eye department with the correct diagnosis of acute glaucoma was 15/38 (39.5%), while 23/38 (60.5%) had some other diagnosis.
* Acute Glaucoma. This usually occurs in anatomically predisposed eyes with shallow anterior chambers, such as long-sighted elderly patients and those of an oriental background.
Acute glaucoma happens when there is a sudden and more complete blockage to the flow of aqueous fluid to the eye.
The usual cause is an easily treatable infection, such as conjunctivitis, but acute glaucoma must be ruled out.
Charles, "Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) causing acute glaucoma: an unreported complication," Eye (London, England), vol.
It could be: 6 Acute glaucoma, where the pressure within the eyeball rises suddenly, making your eye sore and red.
Acute glaucoma, for example, typically affects the elderly;
Linda wants to find her real mother before the acute glaucoma she suffers finally robs her of her sight.
A Conjunctivitis can be very sore, but acute glaucoma has to be ruled out.
However, in acute glaucoma, the drainage system suddenly develops a blockage, and the fluid pressure inside the eye rises rapidly, causing pain and a "red eye".
Anyone with acute glaucoma usually gets fast treatment to relieve it - which means drops in the eye and often emergency surgery.

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