pharyngitis

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pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

Pharyngitis

 

acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx.

Acute pharyngitis in man is caused primarily by microbes (streptococcus, staphylococcus, and pneumococcus) and viruses (grippe and the adenoviruses); in the case of a severe cold or sinusitis, the inflammation frequently spreads to the pharynx from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The symptoms of pharyngitis are dryness of the pharynx, painful swallowing—especially in the absence of food or drink—and a body temperature ranging from normal to 37.5°C. Treatment includes gargling with alkaline and disinfectant solutions, drinking warm liquids, and a bland diet.

Chronic pharyngitis may result from repeated acute infections of the pharynx, chronic infections in the nose and paranasal sinuses, chronic tonsillitis, and prolonged irritation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx caused by smoking, alcohol abuse, the inhalation of dust or noxious gases, and overexposure to cold. The symptoms are dryness of the pharynx, a burning or tickling sensation (a “scratchy” throat), painful swallowing, coughing, and the frequent need to expectorate. The condition is treated by removing the causative factors, gargling or rinsing the pharynx with alkaline solutions (inhalation), and applying a solution of Lugol’s caustic in glycerine to the posterior wall of the pharynx.

REFERENCES

See references under LARYNGITIS.
L. V. NEIMAN
Pharyngitis in animals is caused by the penetration of microorganisms in the pharyngeal tissues, usually resulting from a chill to the body or from the effect of extreme cold on the mucous membrane of the pharynx. Certain infectious diseases, such as anthrax, strangles, and pasteurellosis, may be accompanied by pharyngitis. The symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, excessive salivation, nasal discharge (with nasal regurgitation of food), swelling and soreness in the region of the pharynx, and—in acute pharyngitis—elevation of body temperature. Treatment includes application of heat to the affected areas, parenteral treatment with sulfanilamides and antibiotics, and serotherapy.

pharyngitis

[‚far·ən′jīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the pharynx.
References in periodicals archive ?
Group A beta haemolytic Streptococci (GABHS) account for 15-30 per cent of cases of acute pharyngitis in children and 5 to 20 per cent in adults.
Acute pharyngitis is one of the more common conditions encountered in office practice, accounting for 2% of all ambulatoryvisits in the United States.
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Performing additional testing adds cost, and since multiple types of [beta]-hemolytic streptococci can cause acute pharyngitis, (3) and treatment, although not necessary to prevent complications, (5) is of symptomatic value, adoption of a pragmatic position that equates [beta]-hemolytic streptococci observed with group A streptococci observed is understandable.
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Acute pharyngitis is one of the most frequent illnesses for which pediatricians and other primary care physicians are consulted, with an estimated 15 million visits per year in the United States.
Acute pharyngitis is the common childhood illness seen in outpatient setting.
According to the IDSA guidelines, testing is not recommended for those with acute pharyngitis with features that strongly suggest viral etiology, such as cough, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, or oral ulcers.
In addition to acute pharyngitis, GAS causes several other human diseases, ranging from relatively mild to more severe, such as necrotizing fasciitis, soft tissue infections, glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.
Acute pharyngitis in adults is primarily a viral infection; only about 10% of cases are of bacterial etiology.