"Some of the Neanderthals had adaptive mutations
that gave them advantages against these pathogens, and they were able to pass some of these mutations on to modern humans," explains Enard, who completed the work while he was a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford University.
albopictus mosquitoes are concentrated in the subtropical southeastern states (10), which can lead to selection of different adaptive mutations
in circulating CHIKV strains.
They cover anatomical and physiological aspects, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, infections in children, the involvement of the vaginal microbiome, asymptomatic urinary tract infections, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, and urosepsis; reservoirs of infection, antimicrobial resistance, phylogeny, virulence, and fitness factors, including exotoxins, the structure of adhesins, adaptive mutations
, and intracellular persistence, as well as other uropathogens; and host responses and emerging therapeutics, including innate immunity, sensation and pain in the bladder, and drug and vaccine development.
Take, for instance, the evolutionary synthesis's view of species as gene pools, in which evolution is a process of trial and error where the proportion of adaptive mutations
increases over time: such a view is not possible without natural selection.
(28) Rosenberg, "Evolving Responsively: Adaptive Mutation
"; Foster, "Mechanisms of Stationary Phase Mutation: A Decade of Adaptive Mutation
"; Wright, "Stress-Directed Adaptive Mutations
and Evolution"; Saier Jr., "Did Adaptive and Directed Mutation Evolve to Accelerate Stress-Induced Evolutionary Change?"; Zhang and Saier, "Transposon-Mediated Adaptive and Directed Mutations and Their Potential Evolutionary Benefits"; Rosenberg and Queitsch, "Combating Evolution to Fight Disease."
The rate at which bacterial populations become locally adapted depends on both the selective regime as well as the rate at which adaptive mutations
arise and are fixed within the population.
The H7N9 virus acquires selective adaptive mutations
while moving across people, the report added.
To understand invasions we analyze different kinds of mechanisms that would allow the introduced organisms to become invasive in their new environments: enemy release, allelopathy, Darwin's naturalization hypothesis, empty niches, propagule pressure, breakdown of biotic regulation, phenotypic plasticity, variation increase (by means of hybridization, genome and gene duplication, endosymbiosis, transposition, somatic mutations and mitotic recombinations, small regulatory RNAs), purge; adaptive mutations
; and epigenetic changes.
He notes that biology recognizes chance in such areas as adaptive mutations
, but not in the ebb and flow of social interaction.
Although apparently adaptive mutations
such as these arose in the past 10,000 years, some geneticists doubt that the agricultural revolution jump-started the pace of genetic evolution.
"The problem with adaptive mutations
is to provide a mechanism that could account for them.