albopictus mosquitoes are concentrated in the subtropical southeastern states (10), which can lead to selection of different adaptive mutations
in circulating CHIKV strains.
They cover anatomical and physiological aspects, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, infections in children, the involvement of the vaginal microbiome, asymptomatic urinary tract infections, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, and urosepsis; reservoirs of infection, antimicrobial resistance, phylogeny, virulence, and fitness factors, including exotoxins, the structure of adhesins, adaptive mutations
, and intracellular persistence, as well as other uropathogens; and host responses and emerging therapeutics, including innate immunity, sensation and pain in the bladder, and drug and vaccine development.
Take, for instance, the evolutionary synthesis's view of species as gene pools, in which evolution is a process of trial and error where the proportion of adaptive mutations
increases over time: such a view is not possible without natural selection.
Wright, "Stress-Directed Adaptive Mutations
and Evolution," Molecular Microbiology 52, no.
These analyses will provide insight into the diversity of H5N1 quasispecies and the molecular mechanisms of human adaptive mutations
Drugs that interfere with it thus could limit "the potential for development of drug resistance that can occur due to rapid adaptive mutations
of viral genomes," the scientists state.
The H7N9 virus acquires selective adaptive mutations
while moving across people, the report added.
A genetic method developed by Cairns and Foster (1991) to discern the effect of selection on the rate of appearance of adaptive mutations
has been used by several authors (Rosenberg and Hastings, 2003, 2004; Hastings et al.
He notes that biology recognizes chance in such areas as adaptive mutations
, but not in the ebb and flow of social interaction.
Although apparently adaptive mutations
such as these arose in the past 10,000 years, some geneticists doubt that the agricultural revolution jump-started the pace of genetic evolution.
The problem with adaptive mutations
is to provide a mechanism that could account for them.
Although genetic analysis of experimental lines has provided a great deal of information about deleterious alleles, analogous analysis of adaptive mutations
would typically require crosses between real taxa.