This selection of 21 essays concentrates on using complexity theory, also known as complex adaptive system theory
. Contributors describe moves toward a supportive nonlinear modeling structure, the role of "waste" in complex systems, the evolution of the administrative state, the existential complexity appreciation of policy development and analysis, decision-making on resources, robust policy analysis for complex open systems, and taking a pluralistic approach.
The Evolutionary Epistemology as Campbell's generalized or universal Darwinism and his theory of vicarious selector, and Popper's evidence for universal evolution and hierarchical systems evolution in Objective Knowledge offered strong support and complementation to the Complex Adaptive System theory of SFI (Popper, 1972, chap.
Thirty years have passed now, the questions found sensitively by Checkland at that time have been solved to a larger extent due to the appearance and further development of self-organization theories of various schools as well as Universal Evolution and Complex Adaptive System theory. Therefore, we add one more umbrella to summarize the new development of systems thinking from static and steady studies to the studies of dynamics and mechanisms.