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see procedureprocedure,
in law, the rules that govern the obtaining of legal redress. This article deals only with civil procedure in Anglo-American law (for criminal procedure, see criminal law).
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a concept used in probability theory. Trials may have one (and only one) of the outcomes A1, A2,. . ., An Each outcome of a trial is considered an “event” that has a certain probability P(Ak). Here Trial always holds.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about a trial?

Dreaming of being on trial may indicate that the dreamer needs to be more accepting of himself or herself and less judgmental of others.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


One of a series of duplicate experiments.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Bardell vs. Pickwick
trial for breach of promise results in imprisonment of both parties for not paying damages and costs. [Br. Lit.: Dickens Pickwick Papers]
Trial by Jury
trial of a breach-of-promise suit is dismissed when the judge decides to many the plaintiff. [Br. Opera: Gilbert and Sullivan Trial by Jury]
Trial, The
Joseph K. is tried by a strange court for an unspecified crime. [Ger. Lit.: Kafka The Trial]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. Law
a. the judicial examination of the issues in a civil or criminal cause by a competent tribunal and the determination of these issues in accordance with the law of the land
b. the determination of an accused person's guilt or innocence after hearing evidence for the prosecution and for the accused and the judicial examination of the issues involved
c. (as modifier): trial proceedings
2. a motorcycling competition in which the skills of the riders are tested over rough ground
3. Ceramics a piece of sample material used for testing the heat of a kiln and its effects
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Given that adaptive trials are liable to misuse (for example, ad-hoc changes to rescue a poorly planned study), regulators across the world often scrutinize adaptive designs much more closely.
"At the trial design phase, sponsors and CROs are taking more of a portfolio, rather than a study view, and looking at new clinical trial designs, such as adaptive trials, to help identify promising drug candidates earlier and discontinue the development of drugs that are unlikely to be approved or will have reimbursement challenges," said Dr.
"Aptiv's adaptive trial capabilities, combined with our existing technology platforms, such as ICONIK and Firecrest, will further differentiate our services and help our customers take time and cost out of the development process," said Dr.
The company said that the adaptive trial design enables it to transition seamlessly to the Phase III portion of the trial after completion of the Phase II portion.
This is a particular boon to adaptive trial designs, but has smoothed and streamlined all the trials we are conducting."
Among the latest industry trends: adaptive trial designs dominate development programs and healthcare reform is bolstering outcomes research activities; despite recent regulatory initiatives, biosimilar development for the U.S.
There is also increased sponsor demand for adaptive trial designs and biosimilar services.
Ellis will lead project management efforts with a focus on practices and methodology for adaptive trial implementation and execution.
Unmet medical needs, market demands, the constant pursuit of new mechanisms of action, innovative biological approaches, adaptive trial design, and personalized medicine.
We are delighted to welcome the seasoned group of medical device and diagnostic experts from MDCI to the company, as we continue to broaden our acumen in medical device and adaptive trial methodology."

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