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A substance added to another to strengthen or otherwise alter it for the purpose of improving the performance of the finished product.
Pertaining to addition.
That property of a process in which increments of the dependent variable are independent for nonoverlapping intervals of the independent variable.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in metallurgy, a material introduced into a liquid metal to change the composition and properties of the metal or slag. A distinction is made among slag-forming additives (lime, fluorspar, and bauxite and their combinations or substituents), carbonizing additives (ground coke, cast iron, and metal carbides), oxidizing additives (ores, clinker, and metal oxides), and alloying additives (ferroalloys, hardeners, and industrial-grade chemical elements). Additives are introduced into the melting unit, ladle, or casting mold.



in petrochemistry, a substance that is added in small amounts to fuels and industrial oils to improve their working properties. Liquid fuels and oils usually do not contain more than a few hundredths or tenths of a percent additives by weight, and only certain additives are used in concentrations of about 1-2 percent or greater.

Additives in fuels improve the efficiency of combustion processes, storage life, and the ability of a fuel to maintain its original properties during shipment and use. They also reduce the harmful effects of fuels on machinery and improve performance at low temperatures. The most common additives are antiknocks, for example, tetraethyllead, which reduce detonation of engine fuels. Other widely used additives act as antioxidants (para-oxydiphenylamine and naphthol), chemical inhibitors, modifiers, metal deactivators, stabilizers, and antifouling agents.

Additives for petroleum oils and synthetic oils are classified on the basis of their use. High-viscosity additives increase the viscosity and improve the viscothermal properties of oils, while pour-point depressants lower the pour point of oils. Antioxidants protect an oil from oxidation by atmospheric oxygen; anticorrosives reduce the decay of a metal in aggressive mediums; and antiwear and antiscuff agents improve the lubricating properties of oils. Antifoaming agents reduce foam, detergents prevent deposition of solids on mechanical parts, and multipurpose additives simultaneously improve several working properties of oils. Also used as additives for oils are various hydrocarbons and compounds that consist of organic molecules and certain elements, including low-molecular surfactants and polymers.


Nefteprodukty: Svoistva, kachestvo, primenenie. Spravochnik Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966.
Kuliev, A. M. Khimiia i tekhnologiia prisadok k maslam i toplivam. Moscow, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A material, used in very small quantity, to modify a specific property of another material or otherwise improve its characteristics; used in paints, plasters, mortars, etc.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A function f : X -> Y is additive if

for all Z <= X f (lub Z) = lub { f z : z in Z }

(f "preserves lubs"). All additive functions defined over cpos are continuous.

("<=" is written in LaTeX as \subseteq, "lub" as \sqcup ).
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (
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Again, this will help identify the best possible additive solution.
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Optional TrueBlend configurations include "removable" additive hoppers on TB 100 and TB250 models and high-temperature models designed to blend hot dried resins up to 375 E Inlet/outlet ports allow for blanketing material compartments with dry air.
Lau says young children may be especially at risk for the type of toxicity observed in the nerve-cell cultures, because effects were seen at concentrations of additives she says are theoretically achievable in plasma by eating foods and drinks typically consumed by children--for example, a snack of corn chips, which may contain MSG, and a fruit juice drink, which may contain aspartame.
Additive Cost Reduction: A fourdrinier paper machine making offset printing papers with a sheet ash of 15 % was using a single component cationic flocculant for retention.
Other researchers have suggested that changes in engine temperature or chemical interactions between the additive and metal surfaces trigger a lubricant's function.
For those who suggest the requirement of a reducing atmosphere through the addition of carbonaceous additives will enhance the quality of castings, the need to have organic materials (such as seacoal) in the molding sand is important.
As stated in the report, additives are employed in water-based, solvent-based, or 100% solid technologies.
has pursued a similar strategy with its own $150-million-per-year brand Nutrisoy additive, putting it in a distant second place.