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A substance added to another to strengthen or otherwise alter it for the purpose of improving the performance of the finished product.
Pertaining to addition.
That property of a process in which increments of the dependent variable are independent for nonoverlapping intervals of the independent variable.



in metallurgy, a material introduced into a liquid metal to change the composition and properties of the metal or slag. A distinction is made among slag-forming additives (lime, fluorspar, and bauxite and their combinations or substituents), carbonizing additives (ground coke, cast iron, and metal carbides), oxidizing additives (ores, clinker, and metal oxides), and alloying additives (ferroalloys, hardeners, and industrial-grade chemical elements). Additives are introduced into the melting unit, ladle, or casting mold.



in petrochemistry, a substance that is added in small amounts to fuels and industrial oils to improve their working properties. Liquid fuels and oils usually do not contain more than a few hundredths or tenths of a percent additives by weight, and only certain additives are used in concentrations of about 1-2 percent or greater.

Additives in fuels improve the efficiency of combustion processes, storage life, and the ability of a fuel to maintain its original properties during shipment and use. They also reduce the harmful effects of fuels on machinery and improve performance at low temperatures. The most common additives are antiknocks, for example, tetraethyllead, which reduce detonation of engine fuels. Other widely used additives act as antioxidants (para-oxydiphenylamine and naphthol), chemical inhibitors, modifiers, metal deactivators, stabilizers, and antifouling agents.

Additives for petroleum oils and synthetic oils are classified on the basis of their use. High-viscosity additives increase the viscosity and improve the viscothermal properties of oils, while pour-point depressants lower the pour point of oils. Antioxidants protect an oil from oxidation by atmospheric oxygen; anticorrosives reduce the decay of a metal in aggressive mediums; and antiwear and antiscuff agents improve the lubricating properties of oils. Antifoaming agents reduce foam, detergents prevent deposition of solids on mechanical parts, and multipurpose additives simultaneously improve several working properties of oils. Also used as additives for oils are various hydrocarbons and compounds that consist of organic molecules and certain elements, including low-molecular surfactants and polymers.


Nefteprodukty: Svoistva, kachestvo, primenenie. Spravochnik Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966.
Kuliev, A. M. Khimiia i tekhnologiia prisadok k maslam i toplivam. Moscow, 1972.



A material, used in very small quantity, to modify a specific property of another material or otherwise improve its characteristics; used in paints, plasters, mortars, etc.


A function f : X -> Y is additive if

for all Z <= X f (lub Z) = lub { f z : z in Z }

(f "preserves lubs"). All additive functions defined over cpos are continuous.

("<=" is written in LaTeX as \subseteq, "lub" as \sqcup ).
References in periodicals archive ?
These components are the first additively manufactured parts we have provided for the Orion spacecraft," said Julie Van Kleeck, vice president of Advanced Space & Launch Programs at Aerojet Rocketdyne.
However, NRVP's preferred approach to modeling the relationship between urbanization, ethnicity, and BN vote share is to interact the predictors, rather than simply entering their effects additively.
Habit-formation models differ along several dimensions, including whether habits are "internal" (where habit depends on individual household consumption) or "external" (where habit depends on aggregate consumption), whether habits enter in the utility function multiplicatively or additively, and whether habits change more or less quickly with consumption.
The agency is calling for input regarding technical assessments that should be considered for additively manufactured devices to provide a transparent evaluation process for future submissions.
And if they can handle it, it takes a long time to additively build up layers," said Gustafson.
As the aircraft was pieced together, all of these componenet safety factors combined additively to result in an airframe that was overbuilt for the overall planned safety factor.
Building an aluminum tool would have taken four to six weeks; however, using 3-D printing technology, we were able to additively manufacture the tool within days.
For example, this is true with additively separable preferences where flow utility is logarithmic or for similar preferences in which marginal utility falls even faster (such as CRRA preferences with a risk aversion parameter bigger than one).
Additively, "the entrepreneur plays a crucial role in the capitalist economy by being the one who make the central decisions in the firm and directs its bureaucracy.
Solutions that include material that can be processed additively and at high speed will continue to be in demand.