Two different knee frontal plane loading patterns, knee abduction and adduction
moment, were observed.
The included subjects were men aged 18-35 years (mean = 26.13 years; SD = 4.48) with a history of groin pain for at least two months (mean = 22.53 months; SD = 21.08); they had to be motivated to return to their prior level of sports activity; they had to have painful palpation of the adductor tendons and/or their attachment to the pubic bone and, finally, had to have groin pain of less than 6 (in our pilot study, the patients who had a pain score of 6 or more than 6 on the VAS during legs adduction
against resistance could not perform functional tests; therefore, we considered this level of pain as the highest level to participate in the study) on adduction
of legs against resistance, according to a visual analogue scale (VAS).
Each subject performed four group strength tasks including maximum and 50% maximum voluntary strength in shoulder abduction (MVS-ABD and 50% MVS-ABD), shoulder adduction
(MVS-ADD and 50% MVS-ADD), elbow flexion (MVS-FLEX and 50% MVS-FLEX), and elbow extension (MVS-EXT and 50% MVS-EXT).
at baseline was 7.95 mm (range: 5-11 mm).
The T-test results of functional balance of experimental group Experimental group Range of motion ([degrees]) Initial tests X[+ or -]Ds Cv (%) Flexion 85.6[+ or -]16.9 19.75 Extension 16[+ or -]7.74 48.41 Abduction 33.5[+ or -]5.79 17.3 Adduction
13.5[+ or -]6.68 49.53 Experimental group Range of motion ([degrees]) Final tests t p X[+ or -]Ds Cv (%) Flexion 91.7[+ or -]18.31 19.96 6.13 <0.0005 Extension 21[+ or -]7.68 36.61 7.31 <0.0005 Abduction 40.6[+ or -]6.24 15.36 10.05 <0,0005 Adduction
16.6[+ or -]6.5 39.16 5.89 <0,0005 Table 2.
Associated overelevation in adduction
with V pattern prevented a better horizontal alignment and binocular vision at the level of small angle deviation.
Every individual underwent four tests: abduction, internal and external rotation, and horizontal adduction
. These tests were executed three times for both shoulders by one examiner, and in the following days by other two examiners.
A second research question was whether speed and accuracy conditions would generate different probabilities of adduction
from the emergent relations.
Range of motion was assessed in four joint movements of the shoulder: (a) flexion; (b) extension; (c) abduction, and (d) horizontal adduction
. All flexibility measurements were made on the right side of the subjects, which was followed by a retest to verify the reproducibility of the results.
Peak measures of the following joints were identified during the initial 10% and final 10% of stance: extension of the hip and knee; plantar flexion of the ankle, midfoot, and MPJ; inversion and adduction
of the ankle; and eversion and adduction
of the midfoot.
[sup] In order to facilitate the closure of the posterior glottis, arytenoids adduction
(AA) procedure was proposed to increase the effect of ML and also modified with traction AA procedure by Sonoda et al .