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(ăd`ənoidz'), common name for the pharyngeal tonsils, spongy masses of lymphoid tissue that occupy the nasopharynx, the space between the back of the nose and the throat. Normally the adenoids, like the palatine tonsils located on either side of the throat, help prevent infection in the surrounding tissues. However, when they become enlarged they interfere with normal breathing and sometimes with hearing. When severely enlarged, adenoids can affect normal dental development, resulting in an alteration of facial expression. Infection of the adenoids is common, the symptoms resembling those of tonsillitis, with which it is frequently associated. Surgical removal of the adenoids is advisable when enlargement and repeated infection interfere with development and health. See respirationrespiration,
process by which an organism exchanges gases with its environment. The term now refers to the overall process by which oxygen is abstracted from air and is transported to the cells for the oxidation of organic molecules while carbon dioxide (CO2
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(or adenoidal growths), enlarged pharyngeal tonsils, which are located in the upper back portion of the throat behind the nasal passage. Adenoids are most frequently observed in children four to eight years of age. The major symptom of adenoids is difficulty in nasal breathing. As a result, the child’s mouth is almost always open, his teeth grow incorrectly, and he is susceptible to chronic head colds. When the adenoids are extremely enlarged, the voice takes on nasal tones, causing m and η to sound like b and d. By blocking the opening of the eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the throat, adenoids cause repeated ear infections that lead to gradual impairment of hearing. Children with adenoids often suffer from insomnia, which results in decreased attention span and poor memory. Sometimes bed-wetting occurs. The treatment of adenoids is surgical. After their removal, nasal breathing does not return immediately, and breathing exercises are beneficial (on the advice of a physician).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Traditional cold steel adenoidectomy was performed using a classic adenoid curette.
Choanal adenoids in adults with persistent nasal symptoms: endoscopic management to avoid misdiagnosis and unsuccessful surgeries.
The removal of the tonsils or adenoids in the throat also increased the chances of allergic conditions and infectious upper respiratory tract diseases - including asthma, cold, influenza, and pneumonia, among others - in the following years.
'We calculated disease risks depending on whether adenoids, tonsils or both were removed in the first 9 years of life because this is when these tissues are most active in the developing immune system,' said one of the study authors, Sean Byars from University of Melbourne in Australia.
Adenoidectomy is known to be effective in children with CRS and COME in preventing recurrent infection, and recent work identifying biofilms in adenoids may help explain this clinical observation.
Agrawal, "Defining the Surgical Limits of Adenoidectomy so as to Prevent Recurrence of Adenoids," Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, vol.
There is some evidence that points out that the microbiome of tonsils and adenoids may vary according to the microniche analyzed.
Using bacterial culture technique, Subtil and colleagues have also shown that Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most representative species in adenoids from children with infectious or non-infectious indications [30].
Along with the tonsils, which are located on either side of the throat, the adenoids trap bacteria and viruses that enter the nose and mouth.
The adenoids were inspected by introducing a 0[degrees] rigid endoscope (Karl Storz Hopkins II 7230AA), 4 mm in diameter and 18 cm in length, into the nostril.
Adenoids were graded radiologically as a continuous variable from I to IV.