adenosine diphosphate


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to adenosine diphosphate: adenosine monophosphate

adenosine diphosphate:

see adenineadenine
, organic base of the purine family. Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine
..... Click the link for more information.
; adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
..... Click the link for more information.
.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

A coenzyme and an important intermediate in cellular metabolism as the partially dephosphorylated form of adenosine triphosphate. The compound is 5-adenylic acid with an additional phosphate group attached through a pyrophosphate bond. ADP is produced from adenosine triphosphate and reconverted to this compound in coupled reactions concerned with the energy metabolism of living systems. ADP is also produced from 5-adenylic acid by the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate in a reaction that is catalyzed by an enzyme, myokinase. See Metabolism

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

adenosine diphosphate

[ə¦den·ə‚sēn ‚dī′fäs·fāt]
(biochemistry)
C10H15N5O10P2 A coenzyme composed of adenosine and two molecules of phosphoric acid that is important in intermediate cellular metabolism. Abbreviated ADP.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Consensus and update on the definition of on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate associated with ischemia and bleeding.
Following the addition of 100 [micro]L of agonist or control solution (0.9% saline; Con), the final concentration of agonists in the reaction mixture was 20 [micro]M for adenosine diphosphate (ADP), 0.19 ng/mL for collagen (Coll), and/or 4 X [10.sup.-5] M for epinephrine (Epi).
Table-III: Results for Median Aggregation Test Both Aspirin (ASP) Test and Mean Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Test.
Damaged blood vessels and red blood cells release a compound known as adenosine diphosphate, or ADP, which triggers the process that makes platelets sticky.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation inhibition was measured by modified thromboelastography (mTEG) in 5042 patients.
Reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelet aggregation responses were demonstrated in carriers of CYP2C19 low-function alleles in a study of 429 Amish patients (JAMA 2009;302:849-57).
Prasugrel, like clopidogrel, is a thiopyridine drug that interferes with platelet aggregation by blocking the adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets.
A platelet aggregation study showed abnormally poor responses to arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and epinephrine, and a normal response to ristocetin.
Platelet aggregation tests showed an increased adenosine diphosphate level of 75.36% (normal, 42-68%), Col level of 77.1% (normal, 56-75%), and Ris level of 85.9% (normal, 58-76%).
The platelet aggregation inhibition rate test (i.e., 80-item TEG: arachidonic acid [AA] for aspirin and adenosine diphosphate [ADP] for clopidogrel) was performed within 2 h after blood sample collection.
Data were recorded as inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA): 100–100 x ([MA[sub]ADP − MA[sub]FIBRIN]/[MA[sub]THROMBIN − MA[sub]FIBRIN]), where MA[sub]ADP is the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced clot strength (measurement of clopidogrel effect), MA[sub]FIBRIN is the fibrin induced clot strength (measurement of fibrin contribution), and MA[sub]THROMBIN is the thrombin-induced clot strength (maximum clot strength).

Full browser ?