adenosine monophosphate


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Related to adenosine monophosphate: guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

adenosine monophosphate

(AMP) (ədĕn`əsēn mŏn'əfŏs`fāt), organic compound composed of an adenineadenine
, organic base of the purine family. Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine
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 base, the sugar riboseribose
, monosaccharide carbohydrate of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acid), free nucleotides, and various coenzymes.
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, and one phosphate unit. AMP is one of the possible products of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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 (ATP) and is therefore important in the transfer of chemical energy during anabolism. Cyclic AMP, a very close structural relative of AMP containing an additional ester linkage between the phosphate and ribose units, can act as a secondary messenger for several hormones. It also plays a role in the transcription of some genes (see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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).

adenosine monophosphate

[ə¦den·ə‚sēn ′mä·nō′fäs·fāt]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
The latter represents humoral HM associated with bone resorption-stimulating factors produced by malignant cells without bone metastases, such as tumor necrosis factors [Alpha] and [Beta], transforming growth factor-[Beta], interleukin-1, and prostaglandin [E.sub.2].[1,4,5,8] 1, 25 (OH) Vitamin D is the most common humorally mediated cause of HM in Hodgkin disease.[4] PTHrP seems to play an important role in HM,[1,4-6] with characteristic clinical findings such as hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, reduction in %TRP, and an increase of urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate.[5]
AC promotes the formation of a compound called cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which is involved in numerous regulatory and signaling pathways in the cell.
This set of immunoglobulins is directed at varying sites within the thyroid cell membrane.[6] Some are capable of stimulating adenylate cyclase, resulting in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) generation and autonomous thyroid hormone production.
TJ004309 is a novel, humanized antibody against CD73, an ecto-enzyme expressed on stromal cells and tumors that converts extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine, which is highly immunosuppressive.
According to the partnership, TJD5 is a novel, humanised antibody against CD73, an ecto-enzyme expressed on stromal cells and tumors that converts extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine, which is highly immunosuppressive.
HS-induced alterations in nucleotide-related metabolites (orotic acid, uridine 5' -monophosphate, uric acid, adenosine monophosphate, uridine, and uracil) were also observed, with the concentrations increased 1.46- to 2.26-fold in the HS group as compared with the non-HS group (p<0.01).
Multiple potential action mechanisms of metformin have been proposed including inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex I), activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, inhibition of glucagon-induced elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate with reduced activation of protein kinase A, inhibition of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase,[1] as well as an effect on gut microbiota.
Furthermore, the inhibition of ATIC causes the accumulation of the substrate AICAR which, in turn, inhibits the enzymes adenosine deaminase and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase, involved in the catabolism of adenosine (Figure 2) [75].
They then treated the Wilson's disease mice with isoproterenol, a beta agonist known to induce lipolysis, the breakdown of fat into fatty acids, through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway.
In addition to single agent studies, several clinical trials have also looked at the use of L-arginine combined with other substances such as a Pycnogenol and adenosine monophosphate, as these agents may work synergistically by also increasing nitric oxide production through stimulation of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.
Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch and a primary target for those seeking to treat type II diabetes.

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