adenosine monophosphate


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Related to adenosine monophosphate: guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

adenosine monophosphate

(AMP) (ədĕn`əsēn mŏn'əfŏs`fāt), organic compound composed of an adenineadenine
, organic base of the purine family. Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine
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 base, the sugar riboseribose
, monosaccharide carbohydrate of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acid), free nucleotides, and various coenzymes.
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, and one phosphate unit. AMP is one of the possible products of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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 (ATP) and is therefore important in the transfer of chemical energy during anabolism. Cyclic AMP, a very close structural relative of AMP containing an additional ester linkage between the phosphate and ribose units, can act as a secondary messenger for several hormones. It also plays a role in the transcription of some genes (see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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).

adenosine monophosphate

[ə¦den·ə‚sēn ′mä·nō′fäs·fāt]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled comparative clinical trial of arginine aspartate plus adenosine monophosphate for the intermittent treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
Most drugs designed to act on AMPK do so by increasing levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
The fourth treatment, theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that prevents the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (the second messenger produced by adenylyl cyclase), was the only agent that restored cell signaling to normal or supranormal levels but did so at further cost to cell replication.
Linguagen Corporation, a taste technology company based in Cranford, NJ, recently received a letter from FDA indicating that the agency does not have any questions regarding the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of its bitter blocker adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
The new theophylline-related drugs are phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors that target cyclic adenosine monophosphate and prevent its breakdown.
Replicate tubes containing these compounds were added to a buffered cocktail that consisted of 25 mM adenosine monophosphate, 0.
Pharmacologic effects of PDE-III/PDE-V inhibition include, vasodilation, smooth muscle relaxation and platelet aggregation inhibition, due to decreased degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).
Editor's Note: The authors list increased expression of the longevity gene SIRT1, altered expression of nuclear factor kappa-beta (NF-kB), activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), improved glucose metabolism, and other factors as possible mechanisms for improvements in cognitive function observed in association with resveratrol.
Research led by Thomas Gregor, an assistant professor of physics at Princeton, and Satoshi Sawai, a former postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Princeton biologist Edward Cox and now at the University of Tokyo, has shown that food-deprived amoebae are prodded into their coordinated clumping by the chemical cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), effectively changing the parameters of the cell environment.
While it is true that caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist, it also increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate, (cAMP) which has antiproliferative and immunosuppressive effects.
Benowitz' team injected the animals' eyes with oncomodulin in slow-release capsules, along with a chemical called cyclic adenosine monophosphate that's known to prompt nerve cells to respond to other growth factors.

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