adenosine triphosphate


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adenosine triphosphate

(ATP) (ədĕn`əsēn trī'fŏs`fāt), organic compound composed of adenineadenine
, organic base of the purine family. Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine
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, the sugar riboseribose
, monosaccharide carbohydrate of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acid), free nucleotides, and various coenzymes.
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, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of proteins. It is broken down by hydrolysis to yield adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inorganic phosphorus, and energy. ADP can be further broken down to yield adenosine monophosphateadenosine monophosphate
(AMP) , organic compound composed of an adenine base, the sugar ribose, and one phosphate unit. AMP is one of the possible products of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is therefore important in the transfer of chemical energy during
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 (AMP), additional phosphorus, and more energy. When the phosphorus and energy are immediately used to drive other reactions, such as the synthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP), an RNA precursor, from uridine monophosphate (UMP), the pair of reactions are said to be coupled. New ATP is produced from AMP using the energy released from the breakdown of fuel molecules, such as fats and sugars.

Extracellularly, ATP has been found to act as a neurotransmitterneurotransmitter,
chemical that transmits information across the junction (synapse) that separates one nerve cell (neuron) from another nerve cell or a muscle. Neurotransmitters are stored in the nerve cell's bulbous end (axon).
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. ATP receptors are widespread through the body. On its own it is known to have effects in the arteries, intestines, lungs, and bladder. It is also often released in tandem with other neurotransmitters, perhaps to add chemical stability. See phosphorylationphosphorylation,
chemical process in which a phosphate group is added to an organic molecule. In living cells phosphorylation is associated with respiration, which takes place in the cell's mitochondria, and photosynthesis, which takes place in the chloroplasts.
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.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

A coenzyme and one of the most important compounds in the metabolism of all organisms, since it serves as a coupling agent between different enzymatic reactions. Adenosine triphosphate is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) with an additional phosphate group attached through a pyrophosphate linkage to the terminal phosphate group (see illustration). ATP is a powerful donor of phosphate groups to suitable acceptors because of the pyrophosphate nature of the bonds between its three phosphate radicals. For instance, in the phosphorylation of glucose, which is an essential reaction in carbohydrate metabolism, the enzyme hexokinase catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate group.

Structure of adenylic acid and phosphate derivatives ADP and ATPenlarge picture
Structure of adenylic acid and phosphate derivatives ADP and ATP

ATP serves as the immediate source of energy for the mechanical work performed by muscle. In its presence, the muscle protein actomyosin contracts with the formation of adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate. ATP is also involved in the activation of amino acids, a necessary step in the synthesis of protein. See Muscle

In metabolism, ATP is generated from adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate mainly as a consequence of energy-yielding oxidation-reduction reactions. In respiration, ATP is generated during the transport of electrons from the substrate to oxygen via the cytochrome system. In photosynthetic organisms, ATP is generated as a result of photochemical reactions. See Carbohydrate metabolism, Cytochrome

By virtue of its energy-rich pyrophosphate bonds, ATP serves as a link between sources of energy available to a living system and the chemical and mechanical work which is associated with growth, reproduction, and maintenance of living substance. For this reason, it has been referred to as the storehouse of energy of living systems. Because ATP, ADP, and adenylic acid are constantly interconverted through participation in various metabolic processes, they act as coenzymes for the coupled reactions in which they function. See Biochemistry, Coenzyme, Metabolism

adenosine triphosphate

[ə¦dēn·ə‚sēn ‚tri·′fäs‚fāt]
(biochemistry)
C10H16N5O12P3 A coenzyme composed of adenosine diphosphate with an additional phosphate group; an important energy compound in metabolism. Abbreviated ATP.
References in periodicals archive ?
About 10 years ago, biochemical studies in several laboratories established that AZT-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase uses adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which moves energy around inside the cell, to remove the AZT.
OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that ribose supplementation rapidly replenishes adenosine triphosphate stores and thereby improves exercise performance.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the first nucleoside triphosphate, was discovered in 1929 and synthesized in 1948.
Each channel opens its gates only after a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binds to a receptor on the channel.
A physicist at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, argues that what appears to be a walk along a microtubule for kinesin proteins is really random motion cleverly constrained by chemical switching carried out by adenosine triphosphate.
Luciferase creates light in combination with oxygen, a molecule called luciferin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a substance found in all living cells.
Using ATP - adenosine triphosphate, the molecular medium of energy exchange present in nearly all living cells - Aleksandr Noy at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and colleagues have created a novel transistor that could allow electronic devices that can be hooked directly into the nervous system.
Bioenergy, Minneapolis, MN, has achieved GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status from FDA for its core energy nutrient D-ribose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide the body uses to stimulate the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an essential energy compound.
The product is an energy-rich molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which cells use to drive myriad chemical reactions.
The energy necessary for the explosive movements associated with the aforementioned sports is derived from the breakdown of food, primarily carbohydrate, into glucose to produce the chemical compound, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
Creatine releases its energy to let the muscle rebuild supplies of energy-rich adenosine triphosphate, ATP, the main fuel for sprinting or intense weight training.

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