In this study, 3 cases contained pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (12.5%), and two cases (8.3%) were found to have both sclerosing adenosis
[85,86] Mechanisms of Wnt activation include somatic mutations of CTBBB1, AXIN1 and AXIN2, as well as inactivation of tumour suppressor adenosis
polyposis coli (APC), which mimic pathway activation.
The diagnosis of prostatic cancer is based on a combination of architectural, cytological and ancillary features but accurate tissue diagnosis can become very difficult due to the presence of either a small focus of cancer or due to the presence of many benign mimickers of malignancy like adenosis
Special techniques for example morphometry, DNA ploidy and immunohistochemical studies against various antigens are used to differentiate premalignant lesions like fibrocystic disease with epitheliosis, atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis
and carcinoma in situ.8
Mammary epithelial hyperplasia is classified into three distinct types: lobular (arising from the intralobular ducts), ductal (arising from the extralobular ducts), and adenosis
(CASSALI et al., 2011).
graft 39 necrosis 15 Fibrocystic None 39 16 Ductal None 34 hyperplasia 17 Fibrosis, None 32 atrophy 18 Fibrosis, None 31 ductal dilation 19 Fibrocystic None 30 20 Sclerosing None 29 adenosis
21 Fibrocystic None 28 22 Apocrine None 24 metaplasia 23 Fibrosis None 24 24 Fibrosis None 24 25 Apocrine Sup.
In type II microcalcifications, there is more carbonate in benign disease such as sclerosing adenosis
than in malignant lesions, although malignant lesions usually contain greater amounts of proteins, amino acid residues, and carotenoids.
Tumor class Description Number of patients Benign Fibroadenoma 35 Complex fibroadenoma 1 Fibrocystic change 15 Chronic inflammation 1 Lymphocytic lobulitis 1 Fibrosis 3 Sclerosing adenosis
1 Atypical ductal hyperplasia 1 Atypical lobular hyperplasia 1 Adenosis
2 Chronic mastitis 1 Tubular adenoma 1 Fat necrosis 1 Malignant Invasive ductal carcinoma 41 Ductal carcinoma in situ 4 Invasive lobular carcinoma 1 TABLE 2: The morphological and texture features employed for tumor classification.
Para la clasificacion de las lesiones benignas, se tomo en cuenta la categorizacion propuesta por Dupont y Page (12) que incluye: a) lesiones proliferativas sin atipias (hiperplasia ductal usual o tipica, adenosis
esclerosante, cicatriz radiada y papiloma intraductal) y b) lesiones proliferativas con atipias (hiperplasia ductal atipica e hiperplasia lobulillar atipica).
The difficulties in the histopathological study following salvage treatment lie in the identification of small foci of residual adenocarcinoma; the distinction of cancer from its many mimics, including atrophy, adenosis
, and atypical basal cell hyperplasia; (7) and the separation of treatment effects in non-tumoural tissue from recurrent or persistent adenocarcinoma.
There are three main histological phenotypes of nipple adenoma: (1) Adenosis
type: the lesion is in the dermis, has a relatively clear margin, and usually lacks hyperkeratosis in the epidermis.
Therefore, core biopsy was performed and revealed sclerosing adenosis
. Diagnosis of sclerosing adenosis
can be difficult with mammogram, ultrasound, and MRI, and tissue diagnosis may be required for definitive diagnosis.