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Related to adhesive: adhesive tape, adhesive capsulitis


substance capable of sticking to surfaces of other substances and bonding them to one another. The term adhesive cement is sometimes used in place of adhesive, especially when referring to a synthetic adhesive. Animal glue, a gelatin made from hides, hooves, or bones, was probably known in prehistoric times; it remained the leading adhesive until the 20th cent. It is now used especially in cabinetmaking. Animal glue is sold both as a solid (either ground or in sheets, to be melted in a water-jacketed glue pot and applied while hot) and as liquid glue (an acidic solution). Adhesives from vegetable sources are also important; they include natural gums and resinsresin,
any of a class of amorphous solids or semisolids. Resins are found in nature and are chiefly of vegetable origin. They are typically light yellow to dark brown in color; tasteless; odorless or faintly aromatic; translucent or transparent; brittle, fracturing like glass;
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, mucilagemucilage
, thick, glutinous substance, related to the natural gums, comprised usually of protein, polysaccharides, and uranides. It swells but does not dissolve in water.
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, and starch and starch derivatives. They are commonly used for sizing paper and textiles and for labeling, sealing, and manufacturing paper goods. Other adhesives derived from animal and vegetable sources include blood glue, casein glue, fish glue, rubber adhesives, and cellulose derivatives. Adhesives having special properties are prepared from synthetic resins. Some synthetic adhesives, such as the epoxy resins, are strong enough to be used in construction in place of welding or riveting. Adhesive tapes have a coating of pressure-sensitive adhesive.


See I. Skeist, ed., Handbook of Adhesives (1962); N. A. de Bruyne and R. Houwink, ed., Adhesion and Adhesives (2 vol., 2d ed. 1965–67); A. J. Kinloch, Adhesion and Adhesives: Science and Technology (1987).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


A substance, such as glue, paste, mastic, or cement, that is capable of bonding materials together; force is then required to separate the members.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


A substance used to bond two or more solids so that they act or can be used as a single piece; examples are resins, formaldehydes, glue, paste, cement, putty, and polyvinyl resin emulsions.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A material capable of fastening two other materials together by means of surface attachment. The terms glue, mucilage, mastic, and cement are synonymous with adhesive. In a generic sense, the word adhesive implies any material capable of fastening by surface attachment, and thus will include inorganic materials such as portland cement and solders. In a practical sense, however, adhesive implies the broad set of materials composed of organic compounds, mainly polymeric, which can be used to fasten two materials together. The materials being fastened together by the adhesive are the adherends, and an adhesive joint or adhesive bond is the resulting assembly. Adhesion is the physical attraction of the surface of one material for the surface of another.

The phenomenon of adhesion has been described by many theories. The most widely accepted and investigated is the wettability-adsorption theory. This theory states that for maximum adhesion the adhesive must come into intimate contact with the surface of the adherend. That is, the adhesive must completely wet the adherend. This wetting is considered to be maximized when the intermolecular forces are the same forces as are normally considered in intermolecular interactions such as the van der Waals, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and electrostatic interactions. Of these, the van der Waals force is considered the most important. The formation of chemical bonds at the interface is not considered to be of primary importance for achieving maximum wetting, but in many cases it is considered important in achieving durable adhesive bonds.

The greatest growth in the development and use of organic compound-based adhesives came with the application of synthetically derived organic polymers. Broadly, these materials can be divided into two types: thermoplastics and thermosets. Thermoplastic adhesives become soft or liquid upon heating and are also soluble. Thermoset adhesives cure upon heating and then become solid and insoluble. Those adhesives which cure under ambient conditions by appropriate choice of chemistry are also considered thermosets.

Pressure-sensitive adhesives are mostly thermoplastic in nature and exhibit an important property known as tack. That is, pressure-sensitive adhesives exhibit a measurable adhesive strength with only a mild applied pressure. Pressure-sensitive adhesives are derived from elastomeric materials, such as polybutadiene or polyisoprene.

Structural adhesives are, in general, thermosets and have the property of fastening adherends that are structural materials (such as metals and wood) for long periods of time even when the adhesive joint is under load. Phenolic-based structural adhesives were among the first structural adhesives to be developed and used. The most widely used structural adhesives are based upon epoxy resins. An important property for a structural adhesive is resistance to fracture (toughness). Thermoplastics, because they are not cured, can deform under load and exhibit resistance to fracture. As a class, thermosets are quite brittle, and thermoset adhesives are modified by elastomers to increase their resistance to fracture.

Hot-melt adhesives are used for the manufacture of corrugated paper, in packaging, in bookbinding, and in shoe manufacture. Pressure-sensitive adhesives are most widely used in the form of coatings on tapes, such as electrical tape and surgical tape. Structural adhesives are applied in the form of liquids, pastes, or 100% adhesive films. Epoxy liquids and pastes are very widely used adhesive materials, having application in many assembly operations ranging from general industrial to automotive to aerospace vehicle construction. Solid-film structural adhesives are used widely in aircraft construction. Acrylic adhesives are used in thread-locking operations and in small-assembly operations such as electronics manufacture which require rapid cure times. The largest-volume use of adhesives is in plywood and other timber products manufacture. Adhesives for wood bonding range from the natural products (such as blood or casein) to the very durable phenolic-based adhesives.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A substance capable of holding materials together by bonding the surfaces that are in contact.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
In May 2018, Meridian completed the acquisitions of Epoxy Technology and Adhesives Technology Corp.
The global adhesives segment was valued at $46 billion and sealants at $9.5 billion by the end of 2017 as per a new report.
"PORON foams have a well-known reputation for enabling durable, long-term gasketing, sealing and cushioning performance in a variety of applications and markets, including automotive, medical and general industrial," says Janet Page, marketing manager, Mactac Performance Adhesives. "Mactac is committed to helping our customers select the best pressure-sensitive adhesives for any of these important applications.
Moreover, it was reported that some functional monomers in self-etching adhesives could interact with the hydroxyapatite in the partially demineralised structure which, hypothetically, can improve the bond strength.8,9,10,11 When restoring teeth with silorane-based composites, the manufacturers recommend a two-step self-etching adhesive system (P90 Adhesive System, 3M ESPE) that was developed exclusively for this purpose.
Hinz: The industry has undergone a continuous period of consolidation in recent years, with more than 100 adhesive and sealant formulator acquisitions (globally) reported since the start of 2014.
The Henkel site in Hernel Hempstead, Hertfordshire was the UK production plant for Loctite adhesives. German company Henkel acquired the site and the Loctite brand 15 years ago and it is now an R&D and customer service centre.
6 Adhesive Myth: "Yellow glue" is better than "white glue." While there are a large range of PVA's with varying working and bonding characteristics, these characteristics are not related to the color of an adhesive.
The amino resins are the largest group, with the main product being UF, a very low cost adhesive. UF adhesives are very effective for interior products such as particleboard, fiberboard, and decorative plywood, with their major drawback being the generation of formaldehyde under higher heat and humidity conditions.
More and more, manufacturers are turning to innovative adhesives as a means to achieve multiple technical goals.
Eight commercially available dentin adhesive systems were tested:
Adhesive formulations may include additives or excipients such as antioxidants, plasticizers and tackifiers to improve specific aspects of an adhesive's functionality; however, the use of these must be balanced as they can interfere with a drug's chemistry or affect drug delivery.