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substance capable of sticking to surfaces of other substances and bonding them to one another. The term adhesive cement is sometimes used in place of adhesive, especially when referring to a synthetic adhesive. Animal glue, a gelatin made from hides, hooves, or bones, was probably known in prehistoric times; it remained the leading adhesive until the 20th cent. It is now used especially in cabinetmaking. Animal glue is sold both as a solid (either ground or in sheets, to be melted in a water-jacketed glue pot and applied while hot) and as liquid glue (an acidic solution). Adhesives from vegetable sources are also important; they include natural gums and resinsresin,
any of a class of amorphous solids or semisolids. Resins are found in nature and are chiefly of vegetable origin. They are typically light yellow to dark brown in color; tasteless; odorless or faintly aromatic; translucent or transparent; brittle, fracturing like glass;
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, mucilagemucilage
, thick, glutinous substance, related to the natural gums, comprised usually of protein, polysaccharides, and uranides. It swells but does not dissolve in water.
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, and starch and starch derivatives. They are commonly used for sizing paper and textiles and for labeling, sealing, and manufacturing paper goods. Other adhesives derived from animal and vegetable sources include blood glue, casein glue, fish glue, rubber adhesives, and cellulose derivatives. Adhesives having special properties are prepared from synthetic resins. Some synthetic adhesives, such as the epoxy resins, are strong enough to be used in construction in place of welding or riveting. Adhesive tapes have a coating of pressure-sensitive adhesive.


See I. Skeist, ed., Handbook of Adhesives (1962); N. A. de Bruyne and R. Houwink, ed., Adhesion and Adhesives (2 vol., 2d ed. 1965–67); A. J. Kinloch, Adhesion and Adhesives: Science and Technology (1987).


A substance, such as glue, paste, mastic, or cement, that is capable of bonding materials together; force is then required to separate the members.


A substance used to bond two or more solids so that they act or can be used as a single piece; examples are resins, formaldehydes, glue, paste, cement, putty, and polyvinyl resin emulsions.


A material capable of fastening two other materials together by means of surface attachment. The terms glue, mucilage, mastic, and cement are synonymous with adhesive. In a generic sense, the word adhesive implies any material capable of fastening by surface attachment, and thus will include inorganic materials such as portland cement and solders. In a practical sense, however, adhesive implies the broad set of materials composed of organic compounds, mainly polymeric, which can be used to fasten two materials together. The materials being fastened together by the adhesive are the adherends, and an adhesive joint or adhesive bond is the resulting assembly. Adhesion is the physical attraction of the surface of one material for the surface of another.

The phenomenon of adhesion has been described by many theories. The most widely accepted and investigated is the wettability-adsorption theory. This theory states that for maximum adhesion the adhesive must come into intimate contact with the surface of the adherend. That is, the adhesive must completely wet the adherend. This wetting is considered to be maximized when the intermolecular forces are the same forces as are normally considered in intermolecular interactions such as the van der Waals, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and electrostatic interactions. Of these, the van der Waals force is considered the most important. The formation of chemical bonds at the interface is not considered to be of primary importance for achieving maximum wetting, but in many cases it is considered important in achieving durable adhesive bonds.

The greatest growth in the development and use of organic compound-based adhesives came with the application of synthetically derived organic polymers. Broadly, these materials can be divided into two types: thermoplastics and thermosets. Thermoplastic adhesives become soft or liquid upon heating and are also soluble. Thermoset adhesives cure upon heating and then become solid and insoluble. Those adhesives which cure under ambient conditions by appropriate choice of chemistry are also considered thermosets.

Pressure-sensitive adhesives are mostly thermoplastic in nature and exhibit an important property known as tack. That is, pressure-sensitive adhesives exhibit a measurable adhesive strength with only a mild applied pressure. Pressure-sensitive adhesives are derived from elastomeric materials, such as polybutadiene or polyisoprene.

Structural adhesives are, in general, thermosets and have the property of fastening adherends that are structural materials (such as metals and wood) for long periods of time even when the adhesive joint is under load. Phenolic-based structural adhesives were among the first structural adhesives to be developed and used. The most widely used structural adhesives are based upon epoxy resins. An important property for a structural adhesive is resistance to fracture (toughness). Thermoplastics, because they are not cured, can deform under load and exhibit resistance to fracture. As a class, thermosets are quite brittle, and thermoset adhesives are modified by elastomers to increase their resistance to fracture.

Hot-melt adhesives are used for the manufacture of corrugated paper, in packaging, in bookbinding, and in shoe manufacture. Pressure-sensitive adhesives are most widely used in the form of coatings on tapes, such as electrical tape and surgical tape. Structural adhesives are applied in the form of liquids, pastes, or 100% adhesive films. Epoxy liquids and pastes are very widely used adhesive materials, having application in many assembly operations ranging from general industrial to automotive to aerospace vehicle construction. Solid-film structural adhesives are used widely in aircraft construction. Acrylic adhesives are used in thread-locking operations and in small-assembly operations such as electronics manufacture which require rapid cure times. The largest-volume use of adhesives is in plywood and other timber products manufacture. Adhesives for wood bonding range from the natural products (such as blood or casein) to the very durable phenolic-based adhesives.


A substance capable of holding materials together by bonding the surfaces that are in contact.
References in periodicals archive ?
An analytical model was presented for predicting the stress distributions within a single-lap adhesively bonded beam under tension.
The former was investigated numerically for an adhesively bonded SMC assembly heated via convection (13).
Furthermore, it has been reported [19,43], that such reinforcement may change the failure mechanism of hybrid joints, preventing catastrophic failure, as is commonly observed in non-TTR or adhesively bonded joints.
Sample under inspection was a joint of adhesively bonded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) and stainless steel.
What kind of strength behavior the adhesively bonded curved lap joint under threepoint bending moment would exhibit in its interface depending on the increase in radius was numerically and experimentally investigated.
Our integrated digital marketing strategies mean our teams can work adhesively across the many services we provide as they talk to each other," Bond concluded.
Adhesively restored anterior maxillary dentitions affected by severe erosion: up to 6-year results of a prospective clinical study.
However, dual cure cements contain tertiary amines for initiation of polymerization which are implicated in compromising their color stability.7 By contrast, photo-polymerized resin cements use Norrish Type-II photo initiator (camphorquinone) to induce free radical formation resulting in polymerization reaction.6 In addition, photo-polymerized cements show better color stability (as no tertiary amines are used as chemical activator) and have ambient working time.8 However degree of polymerization for photopolymerized cements depends on light penetration and exposure, which is influenced by the thickness and translucency of adhesively bonded restorations.9
Marya Ignacio weaves her hair with her fingers watching as the curls separate adhesively from her sweat-dripped forehead.
[17-19] investigated the SHS steel columns strengthened with the use of adhesively bonded CFRP flexible sheets under a combination of flexural moment and compression load.
"Some manufacturers' car parts are adhesively joined rather than welded and a nominal thickness of the anodic layer of between two and 10 microns is required, above which there is a risk of components pulling apart under stress.
Without the need of macro mechanical retention that is mandatory to retain a cementable restoration, most of sound dental tissue now can be preserved and conserved and partial restorations can be adhesively bonded to the remaining coronal structure, particularly to the enamel substrate, directly or indirectly.