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arm, upper limb in humans. Three long bones form the framework of the arm: the humerus of the upper arm, and the radius (outer bone) and ulna (inner bone) of the forearm. The radius and ulna run parallel but meet at their ends in such a manner that the radius can rotate around the ulna. This arrangement permits turning the forearm to bring the hand palm up (supination) or palm down (pronation). The radius and ulna hinge with the bones of the hand at the wrist, and with the humerus at the elbow. The biceps brachii, a muscle of the upper arm, bends the arm at the elbow; the triceps brachii straightens the arm. Movement of the arm across the chest and above the head is accomplished by the pectoral muscles of the chest and deltoid muscles of the shoulder, respectively. In an adult the arm is normally five sixths as long as the leg.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the upper extremity in man consisting of the shoulder, forearm, and hand (carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges of the fingers). The arm is a more developed grasping extremity in man than in man’s ancient ancestors, the Anthropomorphidae.

The transformation from Anthropomorphidae to man was largely promoted by freeing the anterior extremities, or arms, from locomotion and body-support functions and converting them into organs capable of performing work operations. As the arm became adapted to work, its structure substantially changed, becoming sharply distinct from the structure of the anterior extremity of Anthropomorphidae.

The most significant structural changes occurred in the hand. In Anthropomorphidae the hand has an underdeveloped thumb and the remaining fingers are greatly elongated; in contrast, the human hand is characterized by a powerfully developed thumb that is essential in performing all work operations. The remaining fingers of the human hand are significantly shorter than those of Anthropoidea but are nevertheless capable of the most delicate and differentiated movements.

In man’s development, the development of the arm as a work organ occurred simultaneously with the progressive development of the brain.

The body processes in brachiopods, the tentacles in cephalopods, and the mobile or nonmobile rays of echinoderms are sometimes called arms.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The upper or superior limb in humans which comprises the upper arm with one bone and the forearm with two bones.
(control systems)
A robot component consiting of an interconnected set of links and powered joints that move and support the wrist socket and end effector.
(engineering acoustics)
A ridge or a spur that extends from a mountain.
A side of an angle.
(naval architecture)
The part of an anchor extending from the crown to one of the flukes.
A long, narrow inlet of water extending from another body of water.
A combat branch of a military force; specifically, a branch of the U.S. Army, such as the Infantry Armored Cavalry, the primary function of which is combat.
(Often plural) Weapons for use in war.
To supply with arms.
To ready ammunition for detonation, as by removal of safety devices or alignment of the explosive elements in the explosive train of the fuse.
The perpendicular distance from the line along which a force is applied to a reference point.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Advanced RISC Machine.

Originally Acorn RISC Machine.


Advanced RISC Machines Ltd.


["The Annotated C++ Reference Manual", Margaret A. Ellis and Bjarne Stroustrup, Addison-Wesley, 1990].


This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


The most widely used microprocessors worldwide. Designed by ARM Holdings plc, Cambridge, England (, the company was founded in 1990 by Acorn Computers, Apple and VLSI Technology. The ARM brand originally stood for Acorn RISC Machine and later Advanced RISC Machine.

In 2016, ARM was acquired by Japan-based Softbank, which agreed to sell the company to NVIDIA in 2020 for $40 billion, pending U.S. and U.K. approval.

ARM chips are 32-bit and 64-bit RISC-based CPUs that are known for their low cost and low power requirements (see RISC). Manufactured under license from ARM by more than a dozen semiconductor companies, billions of ARM-based devices are made every year, including smartphones, tablets, game consoles, e-book readers, netbooks, TVs and myriad other consumer and industrial products.

Very often, an ARM CPU is the processor in a system-on-chip (see SoC). For example, Qualcomm's Snapdragon and NVIDIA's Tegra are ARM-based smartphone and tablet SoCs.

Cortex, SecurCore and StrongARM
ARM processor families are designated by the prefix "ARM" and a digit, such as ARM7, ARM9 and ARM11 or with names such as Cortex and SecurCore, the latter used for secure identification products such as smart cards.

The StrongARM was a high-speed version of the ARM chip that was jointly developed with Digital Equipment Corporation. The SA-100, the first StrongARM chip, was delivered in 1995, and Intel acquired the technology from Digital in 1997. See Intel Mac, Apple M1, StrongARM, Thumb and big.LITTLE.
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References in periodicals archive ?
But ShoreBank's avoidance of deceptive adjustable-rate mortgages allowed it to avoid the losses incurred by other banks when the sub-prime crisis occurred.
Adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs) are typically offerred with initial rates lower than those available on fixed-rate loans--sometimes with deeply discounted rates for the first year or two.(7) But, because the rate is adjustable, the borrower is exposed to increasing interest expense should rates rise, subject to the allowed frequency of adjustment and the limitations of any annual and lifetime caps on the mortgage rate.
Freddie's 23rd Annual Adjustable-Rate Mortgage Survey of prime loans noted that ARMs accounted for 25 percent of loan applications in November 2006.
"If you are going to remain in your home for longer than the three to five years on most adjustable-rate mortgages, I'd lock in for the 30-year rate now," advises Dunagan.
The proposed guidance, Interagency Guidance on Nontraditional Mortgage Products, takes aim at mortgage products such as interest-only mortgages and "payment option" adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs).
"We took a seven-year, adjustable-rate mortgage; it had a low rate of 6.78% that enabled us to get more space for our money."
The company's president and chief executive officer Andrew FJacobs stated that Kim has over a decades' experience trading residential adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) securities at JP Morgan Investment Bank in New York and a decades' experience in different senior financial roles at Bank of America in Charlotte, North Carolina.
The Fannie Mae version of the program is intended to help borrowers refinance their loans to reduce their monthly principal and interest payment or switch from a short-term, adjustable-rate mortgage, or an interest-only mortgage to a fixed-rate mortgage or an adjustable-rate mortgage with an initial fixed-rate period of at least five years.
The office was a remote operations centre and was used to service new mortgages, including the bank's Pick-a-Pay adjustable-rate mortgage programme.
According to Maureen Bauer, vice president of Crossland Federal Savings Bank, qualified applicants can purchase their apartments at insider prices with 10 percent down, a 7.25 percent no-- points adjustable-rate mortgage and a maintenance rebate designed to keep total monthly payments at approximately the same level as current rents.
COUNTRYWIDE HOME LOANS INC., CALabasas, California, has substantially expanded its adjustable-rate mortgage offerings.
Meanwhile a floating-rate loan was placed for the Stamford property through Freddie Maca[euro](tm)s capped adjustable-rate mortgage programe and the loan proceeds are also being used to refinance a construction loan.