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Christian heresy taught in Spain after 782 by Elipandus, archbishop of Toledo, and Felix, bishop of Urgel (Seo de Urgel). They held that Jesus at the time of his birth was purely human and only became the divine Son of God by adoption when he was baptized. Variations of this doctrine had been held as early as the 3d cent. by the TheodotiansTheodotians,
small heretical sect, formed c.190 by Theodotus, a Byzantine. It lasted until the end of the 4th cent. The Theodotians taught that Jesus was a man, who became the Christ only after his baptism (a concept basic both to monarchianism and to adoptionism).
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, Paul of SamosataPaul of Samosata
, fl. 260–72, Syrian Christian theologian, heretical patriarch of Antioch. He was a friend and high official of Zenobia of Palmyra. Paul enounced a dynamic monarchianism, denying the three Persons of the Trinity.
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, and by the Nestorians. It reappeared in the neo-adoptionist heresy among the followers of Peter Abelard. Elipandus and Felix were condemned at Frankfurt (794). The vigorous refutation of AlcuinAlcuin
or Albinus
, 735?–804, English churchman and educator. He was educated at the cathedral school of York by a disciple of Bede; he became principal in 766. Charlemagne invited him (781?) to court at Aachen to set up a school.
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 had much to do with the sect's disappearance in the early 9th cent. See also monarchianismmonarchianism
[Gr.,=belief in the rule of one], the concept of God that maintains his sole authority even over Christ and the Holy Spirit. Its characteristic tenet, that God the Father and Jesus are one person, was developed in two forms in early Christianity.
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References in periodicals archive ?
800), belonging to the Benedictine monastery near Aniane, reinforces the Christology of the two natures in the one person, as defined in the early ecumenical councils, over against Adoptionism.
And at the end he is willing to look sympathetically at both Christologies: adoptionism and Catholicism.
Adoptionism is the view that Jesus was originally no more than a human being who became divine when God adopted him through a special act, sometimes said to be his baptism or his transfiguration, but usually his resurrection.
Although he makes a passing reference to Sabellianism, he offers no discussion of second-century views of adoptionism or modalism.
1, Irenaeus believed Jesus as the Word incarnate is the Son of God from the moment of conception, adoptionism in this context cannot be understood as referring to the belief that Jesus, son of Joseph and Mary and a mere man, was adopted as Son of God at the baptism.
Cavadini The Last Christology of the West: Adoptionism in Spain and Gaul, 785-820, Middle Ages Series (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1993) 1.
In the process it will be necessary to show how a Synoptic-type Spirit-Christology, admissible in the first century, can escape the charge of adoptionism when propounded seriously in the 20th century.
Adoptionism is ruled out because there are not three acts, but just one act -- assumption into hypostatic union -- which contains creation and sanctification within itself.
25) This protest is a protection against adoptionism.
37) Jacob of Serugh wants to establish the Spirit as the principle of identity, but also desires to avoid the suggestion that the Spirit's role was a sanctifying one, again a polemical note against adoptionism.
This revised doctoral dissertation, completed under the direction of Jaroslav Pelikan at Yale University, is a significant piece of revisionist scholarship; it challenges conventional wisdom concerning Spanish adoptionism.
Third, the immediate reason for the rise of adoptionism at this time was the Muslim conquest of Visigothic Spain, which impressed upon Spanish theologians the necessity of developing a Christological doctrine compatible with the Islamic notion of strict monotheism.