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adrenaline (ədrĕnˈəlĭn, –lēn): see epinephrine.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also epinephrine), a hormone of the medullary layer of the adrenal glands which plays an important part in the vital activity of animals and man. Adrenaline is a pyrocatechol derivative, l-methylaminoethanolpyro-catechol, with a molecular weight of 183.2. It is white, crystalline, and optically active. Soluble in hot water, acids, and bases, it is unstable and readily forms various transformation products. Adrenaline was isolated in 1901 and synthesized in 1905. It is formed from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine in the chromaffinic (easily stained) granules of the adrenal glands, from where it is secreted into the bloodstream. The precursor of adrenaline in the organism is noradrenaline, a transmitter (mediator) of nerve impulses in the sympathetic nervous system.

Upon entering the blood, the adrenaline raises the oxygen consumption of organs and tissues and participates in the mobilization of glycogen, the cleavage of which leads to an increase of the sugar level in the blood (hyperglycemia). Adrenaline stimulates protein, carbohydrate, fat, and mineral metabolism; raises arterial blood pressure (primarily by constricting the small peripheral blood vessels); increases heart and respiration rates and the force of cardiac contractions; slows intestinal peristalsis; and so forth. Adrenaline content of the blood rises during emotional stress, increased muscular work, choking, chilling, and lowering of the sugar level in the blood (hypoglycemia). A number of diseases of the internal organs, the nervous system, the endocrine glands, and of other parts of the body are accompanied by an increase or decrease of the adrenaline content in the organism, which can complicate the course of the disease.

Adrenaline for therapeutic purposes is obtained from the adrenal glands of animals and also synthetically. An adrenaline hydrochloride solution is administered subcutaneously during drops in blood pressure and in cases of bronchial asthma and other allergic diseases, in local anesthesia, and for exsanguinating wounds during surgery. Sometimes it is used locally to stop bleeding. Adrenaline is contraindicated in cases of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and severe organic heart diseases.


Adrenalin i noradrenalin. [Lectures of the conference held Dec. 1–3, 1962.] Moscow, 1964.
Matlina, E. Sh., and V. V. Men’shikov. Klinicheskaia biokhimiia katekholaminov. Moscow, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Adrenaline 1:1000 up to 1mg for intramuscular use in anaphylaxis is listed under this Schedule.
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Table 1 shows a comparison of blood glucose concentration between plain lignocaine and lignocaine with adrenaline in type 2 diabetic patients.
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* use the adrenaline auto-injector at the first signs of a severe allergic reaction
In the first and, to date, only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), Jacobs et al .[sup][16] reported a significant increase in ROSC associated with epinephrine and a nonsignificant increase in survival to hospital discharge or worse neurological outcomes in patients administered epinephrine.
The acquisition of Global Adrenaline provides National Geographic with a platform for developing its own call centre and expanding its land-based trip offerings.
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As Mother Nature would have it, our bodies produce adrenaline and noradrenaline, two separate yet related hormones and neurotransmitters.