adrenocorticotropic hormone

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adrenocorticotropic hormone

(ədrē`nōkôr'təkōtrŏp`ĭk), polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary glandpituitary gland,
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system).
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. Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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 to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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. The release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is stimulated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a secretion of the hypothalamus. ACTH secretion is an excellent example of the regulation of a biological system by a negative-feedback mechanism; high levels of adrenocortical steroids in the blood tend to decrease ACTH release, whereas low steroid levels have the opposite effect. ACTH has the same pharmacologic and clinical effects as cortisone when given intravenously or intramuscularly; however, it has no value when applied externally and cannot be taken orally since it is deactivated by digestive enzymes. The action of ACTH is contingent upon normally functioning adrenal glands and is therefore useless in disorders caused by adrenal insufficiency, e.g., as replacement therapy where both adrenal glands have been removed.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone


(ACTH; also corticotropin), a hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. It stimulates the function of the cortex of the adrenal glands (the production of corticoids—in particular, hydrocortisone) and thereby contributes to the normal course of metabolic processes and to the increased resistance of human and animal organisms to the effects of unfavorable conditions.

ACTH is a peptide chain consisting of 39 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of about 4,500. Its biological activity is due to the 24 amino acid residues that are closest to the amine end of the molecule, while the remaining 15 define the species characteristics and immunological properties of the hormone. In addition to its primary effects on the adrenal glands, ACTH also exhibits fat-mobilizing and melanocyte-stimulating activity. When the defense mechanisms of the body must be mobilized (during trauma, infection, stress situations, and so forth), increased amounts of ACTH are secreted into the blood.

The secretion of ACTH by the hypophysis is controlled by the hypothalamus. The regulatory influences from the hypothalamus are transmitted to the hypophysis by a neurohumoral substance, probably a peptide, found in the hypothalamus. This substance is called corticotropin releasing factor, or CRF.

ACTH is used as a hormonal preparation in the treatment of adrenocortical insufficiency caused by hypophyseal disorders, as well as in the treatment of rheumatism, polyarthritis, gout, bronchial asthma, eczema and other allergies, and other diseases. ACTH for medical use is obtained from the hypophyses of cattle. ACTH has also been synthesized; these preparations, which differ structurally from natural ACTH, have a higher biological activity.


Pankov, Iu. A. “Khimiia AKTG i mekhanizm reguliatsii ego sekretsii.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1959, vol. 47, no. 3.
Gorizontov, P. D., and T. N. Protasova. Rol’ AKTG i kortikos-teroidov v patologii. Moscow, 1968.
Schwyzer, R. “Chemistry and metabolic action of nonsteroid hormones.” Annual Review of Biochemistry, 1964, vol. 33, pp. 259–85.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

adrenocorticotropic hormone

[ə¦drēn·ō′kȯrd·ə·kō′träp·ik ′hȯr‚mōn]
The chemical secretion of the adenohypophysis that stimulates the adrenal cortex. Abbreviated ACTH. Also known as adrenotropic hormone.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since NPS has been uncovered, it has been associated with different physiological systems and attributed to various functions such as sleep regulation, modulation of feeding behavior, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); extinguishing anxiety and conditioned fear responses (3-5).
When the weather suddenly changes or the adverse weather conditions last longer, like during cold or heat waves, in days of increased humidity and consequently lower air pressure, the pituitary gland increases secretion of the stress hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that causes anxiety and irritation, and due to the simultaneous reduction, the secretion of endorphins (natural analgesics) the threshold of pain decreases and the subjective feeling of pain increases.
Hormone (normal range) Sibling 1 Sibling 2 ACTH (4,5-48 pg/ml) 12,5 7,5 Kortizol (6,7-22,6 ug/dl) 9,82 2,34 FSH (1,2-19,1 mlU/ml) 0,01 0,08 LH (1,24-8,6 mlU/ml) 0,01 0,04 TSH (0,34-5,86 ulU/ml) 0,01 0,03 FT4 (0,61-1,12 ng/dl) 1,10 0,99 Prolactin (2-15 ng/ml) 9,12 4,43 GH (0,003-0,971 ng/ml) 0,02 0,01 IGF-1 (135-449 ng/ml) 4,11 10,62 ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; LH: luteinizing hormone; TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone; FT4: free thyroxine; GH: growth hormone; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor 1.
Apelin is involved in post- prandial responses and stimulates secretion of arginine-vasopressin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and growth hormone in the ruminant.
This product is similar to Synacten Depot, (but without a preservative benzyl alcohol) which has the same activity as natural adrenocorticotropic hormone.
In the studies conducted on experimental animals, ghrelin application had no effect on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the pituitary, whereas it increased the growth hormone (GH) (Arvat et al., 2001).
The release of certain chemicals, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone makes the heart beat faster, muscles tighten, breathing quicken and blood pressure rising.
According to the company, the primary efficacy endpoint will assess the impact of ATR-101 on urinary free cortisol concentration, and secondary endpoints will evaluate the impact of ATR-101 on adrenal steroids/steroid intermediates and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
At the same time, the brain instructs the pituitary gland, which is in the brain, to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
A synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) product, Synacthen Depot became part of Mallinckrodt's portfolio when it acquired Questcor in August 2014.
(1-2) CES increases cerebrospinal fluid levels of beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serotonin, which play a role in depression and anxiety.
Solar elastosis has been shown to be secondary to the synthesis of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) derived from pro opiomelanocortin (POMC) in keratinocytes.

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