Nonstandard abbreviations: CS, Cushing syndrome; DST, dexamethasone suppression test; ACTH, adrenocorticotropin
; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; DHEA-S[O.sub.4], dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; ROC, receiver-operating characteristic.
Rasmussen et al., "Factors influencing the adrenocorticotropin
test: Role of contemporary cortisol assays, body composition, and oral contraceptive agents," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.
Palatable foods, stress, and energy stores sculpt corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropin
, and corticosterone concentrations after restraint.
Further work-up of the hyponatremia (120 mmol/L) could exclude pseudohyponatremia (serum osmolality: 267 (normal range: 280-300 mmol/kg)) and adrenal insufficiency by an adrenocorticotropin
hormone (ACTH) stimulation test (cortisol basal: 919 nmol/L, 30 min after stimulation with 250 [micro]g ACTH: 1137 nmol/L, and 60 min: 1235 nml/L).
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is mainly expressed in the ARC and the NTS of the brainstem  and can be cleaved into multiple neuropeptides, such as [alpha]-melanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), [beta]-MSH, adrenocorticotropin
(ACTH), [beta]-endorphin ([beta]-END), and [beta]-lipotropin ([beta]-LPH) .
Williams, "[beta]-endorphin suppresses adrenocorticotropin
and cortisol levels in normal human subjects," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
Accordingly, the impairment of POMC-derived production of adrenocorticotropin
hormone was correlated with the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in the pituitary glands of sucrose-rich diet-treated rats; noteworthy these effects are reversed by moderate exercise which has a beneficial role in insulin resistance .
Natzke, "Rapidity of cortisol transfer between blood and milk following adrenocorticotropin
injection," Journal of Dairy Sience, vol.
Waddell, "The hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis in rat pregnancy and lactation: circadian variation and interrelationship of plasma adrenocorticotropin
and corticosterone," Endocrinology, vol.
CS can be divided into adrenocorticotropin
hormone (ACTH)-dependent and ACTH-independent disease.
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In men, the Leydig cells are mainly responsible for this increase (Wheeler et al., 1994), whereas in women exercise-induced increases in testosterone could be an indirect consequence of increased cortisol and adrenocorticotropin
(ACTH) levels as the latter stimulates adrenal production and release of testosterone (Vingren et al., 2010).