Taylor's hypothesis is also referred to as the "frozen turbulence" hypothesis, in which fields of "frozen eddies" are advected by the local flow at the advection speed [W.sub.a], as schematized in the diagram of Figure 11.
Taylor s hypothesis has recently undergone extensive scrutiny and several studies dispute the idea that turbulent eddies are advected at the mean speed of the flow, arguing that the advection speed depends on the frequency and wavenumber of the turbulent eddies   , New light is being shed on this phenomenon, especially since the advent of spatial measurement techniques such as Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) in wind tunnels , direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows ,  and the use of arrays of ultrasonic wind sensors  and LiDARs (15)  for field measurements in the atmospheric surface layer.
Coupled with the winter release of locally stored heat, the heat advected
northward as part of the upper AMOC limb (Rhines et al.
For the XPIA geometry, considering wind speeds between 5 and 10 m [s.sup.-1], this minimum value would be too large to capture features before they advected
out of the retrieval domain if the domain consisted of contiguous closely spaced grid points.
In other words, the inflow of colder, denser air, advected
from very far south near the Antarctic circle, has a dampening effect on cloud development in the surface and middle air layers.
As the daytime hear increases, the heat-induced low pressure eventually advects
moist air from Angola.
This typically taps Congo air and advects it south, first across Angola and then across Namibia.
The ability to pick more surface-layer moisture and advect this, where southern Africa is concerned, inland is made apparent.
Under weather patterns that produce southerly winds, emissions from Halema'uma'u are advected through Kllauea's summit area within the park, which is visited by ~3 million people each year.
The prevailing trade winds advect the vog pollutants from their source toward the southwest.
We have also seen tropical cyclones active in latitudes from where moist maritime air should be advected towards the daytime heat of our south and west.
The equatorial wave weakens though as it drifts further west, but advected moist air penetrates into central Namibia.