adverb

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adverb

An adverb refers to any element in a sentence used to modify a verb, adjective, another adverb, or even an entire clause.
Adverbs can be single words, phrases (called adverbial phrases), or entire clauses (called adverbial clauses).
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adverb:

see part of speechpart of speech,
in traditional English grammar, any one of about eight major classes of words, based on the parts of speech of ancient Greek and Latin. The parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, interjection, preposition, conjunction, and pronoun.
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; adjectiveadjective,
English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. Adjectives and adverbs are functionally distinct in that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, while adverbs
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Adverb

 

a part of speech; a class of autonomous words that are uninflected or inflected only for degrees of comparison and are contrasted in this way to other autonomous words. As a rule, adverbs modify an action or quality and are subordinate to a verb or adjective.

In Russian, the adverbial modifier may coincide with case forms (with or without a preposition) of the noun (for example, On primchalsia begom/streloi, “He came running on the double/like an arrow”), to which it is often also genetically related (Russian peshkom, “on foot”; vverkh, “up, upward”; voochiiu, “with one’s own eyes”). Predicative adverbs function as the principal member of a sentence in which a subject and predicate are not expressed separately (stydno, “it is a shame”; nuzhno, “it is necessary”). In a number of languages (for example, Nenets), there is a transitional class of words with an incomplete declension (often called adverbs) between the noun and the adverb (for example, Nenets haqga, “whither,” “where to,” and hangad, “whence,” “wherefrom”).

Adverbs are classed according to whether they modify verbs (Russian, priglagol’nye narechiid) or adjectives (priad”ektivnye narechiia), and according to meaning, as adverbs of place, time, cause, and degree. Depending on the method of formation, adverbs may be grammatical, which are formed regularly (Russian adverbs in -o, -ski; English adverbs in -ly), and nongrammatical, which are morphologically irregular, or nonanalyzable (Russian ochen’, “very”; English “well”).

V. M. ZHIVOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The simple verb may appear in isolation or it may be complemented or adverbially modified (as in 3c).
According to Holger Thesleff, in his Studies on Intensification in Early and Classical Greek,(27) the adjective [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] loses its qualitative sense and becomes merely intensifying when it is used adverbially to reinforce other adverbs.
The particle meaning "somewhat" here might also be adverbially read as "in a cockeyed fashion" but that may be over-reading Xu Shen's own etymological glosses into the prose of his Postface, which Feng Yan is rephrasing here.
and related forms consistently as a form of "beautiful," even when it is used adverbially to modify verbs of speech.
3) Hornby (1951: 101) mentions adjectives like big, great, small, early, late, perfect, which are used adverbially to indicate degree, "always with nouns in -er formed from verbs".
Again, this interpretation hinges on translating [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as "amid lengthy [themes]" (taken adverbially with [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], for this accentuates the poet's own refined selectivity, his expert ear for conciseness, choosing only the most perfect features from an otherwise confusing pile of material.
Despite theoretical considerations, adjectival forms which seem to be confined to a predicative peripheral consideration (AJAR, ALIVE or AWAKE) can be ascribable to an attributive functioning--and a central consideration, then--when they are adverbially premodified, (half-alive people, a slightly ajar door or a not fully awake freshman), as pointed out by Jacobsson (1996: 207-08).
In the few instances where the word hatha or its equivalent bala is used adverbially (i.
A more literal translation would render 'complexe' and 'incomplexe' adverbially rather than adjectivally (as my translation does).
In crude terms, numbers indicate what may follow the verb and have the same meaning irrespective of the verb symbol which they follow, namely: [empty set] -- no complement or object, 1 -- one or two noun or pronoun objects or complements, 2 -- a bare infinitive, 3 -- a to-infinitive, 4 -- an -ing form, 5 -- a that-clause, 6 -- a clause or a phrase introduced by a wh-word, 7 -- an adjectival complement or a noun object followed by an adjectival complement, 8 -- an -ed form, 9 -- an obligatory adjunct, usually a phrase used adverbially (LDOCE1: xxxiii-xxxiv).
Syntactically, the injunctions come in two varieties: either in the form of a prohibitive negation followed by an adverbially modified verb, or in the form of a verb that is to be understood as a temporal clause in itself and a second, negated main verb.
Neither, which functions both adverbially and as a co-ordinator, begins to display inversion in the 15th century in the HC data and clearly favours it by the mid-16th century in both corpora.