advocate

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advocate:

see attorneyattorney,
agent put in place of another to manage particular affairs of the principal. An attorney in fact is an agent who conducts business under authority that is controlled and limited by a written document called a letter, or power, of attorney granted by the principal.
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Advocate

 

a person who practices the profession of rendering legal assistance. In the USSR, an advocate must be a citizen and must have a higher education in law and no less than two years of experience in legal work. A person who does not have a higher legal education but does have at least five years of experience in legal work may be admitted to a college of advocates (Kollegiia advokatov ) by permission of the council of ministers of an autonomous republic or the executive committee of a regional (territorial) soviet of workers’ deputies. Advocates are subject to the general labor legislation with the specific conditions of their work taken into consideration. Soviet advocates render legal assistance to the population, enterprises, institutions, and organizations in the form of consultation and advice on legal questions, interpretation of and information on legislation, the preparation of complaints, petitions, and other legal documents. Advocates act as defense counsels for persons under indictment or as representatives of civil plaintiffs, defendants, and victims in criminal cases and as representatives of the parties or other participants in civil cases. In some cases, legislation provides for the mandatory participation of an advocate in the proceedings—for instance, in all cases of crimes committed by minors. In cases of crimes of minors or of persons whose physical or mental handicaps prevent them from exercising their right of defense, an advocate may act as defense counsel from the moment the charge is made. In all other cases, he may do so from the moment the defendant has been informed of the completion of the preliminary investigation. The colleges of advocates may conclude agreements with institutions, enterprises, organizations, and kolkhozes on conducting cases for them in courts and arbitration tribunals.

An advocate is obligated to use all the methods and techniques of defense specified by law to bring out the circumstances that might lead to the acquittal of the defendant or to the mitigation of his responsibility and to render all necessary help to the defendant. An advocate does not have the right to withdraw from a case he has assumed or to divulge information that he has received in the process of rendering legal assistance.

In the USSR, advocates’ services are accessible to the population, thanks to a wide network of legal consultation offices and the low fees for services. In many cases, legal assistance is rendered free of charge: in labor cases, in cases on collecting alimony, and in preparing various statements for disabled persons of the first and second groups, for enlisted men, and others. Oral information is also rendered free. The presidium of the college of advocates or the manager of a legal consultation office may also waive the fee for other types of legal aid, depending on the financial situation of the person who has asked for legal help.

In contrast to bourgeois states, there is no private law practice in the USSR and other socialist countries. Every advocate must be a member of the college of advocates, through which he receives all cases or other commissions to render legal assistance. In the USSR, all advocates have equal rights and can plead in any court. There is no division of advocates into higher and lower categories such as existed in prerevolutionary Russia (sworn attorney and private attorney, the latter allowed to plead only in a lower court) or such as still exists in Britain (barrister and solicitor) and in France (avocat and avoué).

T. N. DOBROVOL’SKAIA

advocate

1. a person who pleads his client's cause in a court of law
2. Scots Law the usual word for barrister
References in periodicals archive ?
Twenty-five percent of the practitioners interviewed spoke about the government and policy makers' continued advocation for testing and accountability.
Amplification of the components of the analytical framework Rationale Statutory requirements Municipalities were asked to assess the External advocation strength of influence of each driver (on a Financial imperatives scale of 1 to 6) to give a simple understanding Client expectations of the motives for introducing asset management with more Leadership specific factors under each driver examined further Skills & capacity through interview Practice Culture 6 elements of 'graded' practice were identified for each of Governance eight components; making a total of 48 elements of asset management Organisation practice'.
Strongly left leaning with an advocation of civil rights and a particularly sour note for a former president, "How We Are Our Enemy" is worth considering for anyone seeking a fine collection of political opinions.
T]he opportunity of such organization to further its activities and the advocation of criminal syndicalism and sabotage is greatly lessened [under the law], for it prevents such a society, among other things, from having the opportunity before a large group of disseminating its propaganda, or selling its literature or soliciting membership in its organization.
8,9) Here, we review the historical, current, and developing use of molecular testing in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of breast carcinoma, with an emphasis on summarizing evidence for a molecular classification of carcinoma subtypes and an advocation for incorporating molecular technologies into standard practice.
Any claim relating to copyright infringement, advocation of illegal activities, defamation of character, incitement to riot, treason, etc.
His advocation of the country's vernacular tradition in order to justify the project of modernity in a local context should have especially performed quite an authoritative reference, allowing his discourse to be used as an ideological base in the Ministerial Program of Preservation.
The element of socialization that involves a strong promotion of togetherness and spontaneously shared emotion may be culminated within the activist community in festive practices and the advocation of transgressive pleasures.
Rex, The Time Is Now: Advocation for a Professional Air Liaison Officer Corps (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University, 2007), 12.
His own confession to the scandal aroused by his advocation of this range is in actual terms a testimony against such illogical charges (16).
Wegner, among many others, locates religion as one of the dominant cultural themes of the utopia, yet the utopian form has most often been used in English literature either as an advocation of religious freedom, as Thomas More's Utopia has been read, or to predict a religion-free state.