aerial

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antenna

antenna (ăntĕnˈə), in electronics, system of wires or other conductors used to transmit or receive radio or other electromagnetic waves (see radio); sometimes called an aerial. The idea of using an antenna was developed by Guglielmo Marconi (c.1897). In a transmitting antenna, the signal from an electronic circuit causes electrons in the antenna to oscillate; these moving electric charges generate electromagnetic radiation, which is transmitted through the air and space. Distribution of the waves depends on the design of the antenna; the transmitting antennas of a radio station might be designed to emit waves in all directions, while an antenna used for radar or space communications would be designed to focus the waves in a single direction. In a receiving antenna electromagnetic waves cause the electrons to oscillate, inducing a signal that can be detected by an electronic circuit. The antenna has a characteristic frequency related to its physical dimensions; a wire of a given length may be inherently tuned to radio waves whose wavelengths are simple fractions or multiples of the length of the wire. In general, a longer antenna is used to transmit or receive signals of longer wavelength. Although theoretically, the same antenna can be used both for sending and receiving signals, in many instances transmitting antennas are designed differently from receiving antennas, especially if they must handle very high power loads. Any straight vertical conductor may serve as an antenna and will transmit to or receive from all directions. A horizontal antenna radiates or intercepts energy principally at right angles to itself; the use of horizontal antennas enables transmitters to concentrate or beam their signals into desired areas and enables receivers to select one of several signals having the same frequency but arriving with different polarizations. The dish-shaped microwave antenna is highly directional; it uses a parabolic reflector to focus received signals on a small antenna element. Phased array antennas, used for long range radar and radio astronomy, are composed of large groupings of individual antennas; they may be electronically aimed by changing the relative phase of the signal at each element.
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aerial

See antenna.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006

aerial

[′e·rē·əl]
(biology)
Of, in, or belonging to the air or atmosphere.
(electronics)
(ordnance)
Of or pertaining to operations in the air or to aircraft.
Of weapons or missiles used in aircraft or launched, dropped, or shot from aircraft.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

aerial

1. of or relating to aircraft
2. the part of a radio or television system having any of various shapes, such as a dipole, Yagi, long-wire, or vertical aerial, by means of which radio waves are transmitted or received
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The decision by Larnaca municipality comes almost a month after health services and Limassol municipality decided to aerially spray the areas close to Limassol's salt lakes to combat the coastal town's mosquito infestation.
Pfundt (1896-1987) in 1936, GMP's product applications include the placement of fiber optic, copper conductor and coaxial cable both aerially and underground.
And with the aerially dominant Carroll to aim for, Kenny Dalglish's side are likely to profit from this feature of his game.
The court acted on a petition filed by a political group from the southern state of Kerala, citing an increase in deaths and birth deformities in the state's Kasargode district where endosulfan was aerially sprayed on the cashew crop.
In addition to these vast quantities of unexploded ordnance, aerially delivered weapons systems such as cluster bombs are scattered over much of the country, especially in areas near oil fields.
* Manufacturing, formulating, distributing, or aerially applying specified agricultural chemicals (Sec.
A community backlash has forced the US Border Patrol to drop a controversial plan to aerially spray the broad-spectrum herbicide imazapyr along a stretch of the Rio Grande as part of a program to clear vegetation along the increasingly militarized frontier.
The annex to Article III governs security arrangements in the zones along the border and the level of military or police involvement in each zone, whether aerially, by sea or on the ground.
Between then and 1989, 425,546 acres of land in Lane County had been sprayed aerially with Btk, according to a state Department of Agriculture report.
This overmold technology allows the system to be installed aerially or in standard conduit sizes.
Independent sensors mounted either aerially and/or embedded in the pavement monitor environmental conditions and report back to the energy management system.
"We load planes up with a payload of grass seed, lime and fertilizer, and we aerially treat these areas by dumping this mixture onto a section of land that's relatively inaccessible by any other means," says Quentin Smith, environmental engineer, Inco's Environment, Health and Safety Department.