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Inflammation of the periodontium.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an acute or chronic inflammation of the periodontium and adjacent tissues. Periodontitis is usually a result of dental caries and arises as infection spreads from the root canal through the apical foramen to the apex of the root. It may also develop from frequently recurring injury to the tooth; this kind of injury can result from such occupational habits as biting thread or grasping metal nails with the teeth and from any habitual biting of hard objects, for example, pencils or the mouthpieces of pipes.

Acute periodontitis is manifested by sharp pain in the region of the tooth that intensifies when the inflamed area is touched. Swelling often occurs in the gums, lips, or cheeks, and the affected tooth becomes loose. The enlarged submaxillary lymph nodes become sensitive, and fever occasionally arises. The process may sometimes be complicated by osteomyelitis of the jaw, purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the face and neck, and acute sepsis. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis usually include discomfort while chewing, halitosis, and sometimes fistulas on the gums and facial skin. Chronic periodontitis can lead to the formation of a cyst of the jaw, and both forms of periodontitis can sensitize the body to streptococci.

Treatment of periodontitis is usually conservative, consisting of filling the root canals. Often the tooth is removed. Abscesses are lanced, and antibiotics are used to treat pronounced general symptoms.


Groshikov, M. I. Periodontit. Moscow, 1964.
Marchenko, A. I. “Bolezni periodonta.” In Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1967.
Ovrutskii, G. D., F. G. Gasimov, and S. V. Makarov. Bolezni zubov. Kazan, 1967.
Rybakov, A. I., and V. S. Ivanov. Klinika terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Localized aggressive periodontitis is usually circumpubertal onset, localized to first molar and incisor presentation with interproximal attachment loss on at least two permanent teeth (one of which is a first molar) and involving no more than two teeth other than first molars and incisors.
Jaradat et al., "Association of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms with chronic and aggressive periodontitis," Oral Diseases, vol.
Sela has shown a positive relationship between Treponema denticola and aggressive periodontitis [17].
Localised aggressive periodontitis occurs in children, adolescents with non-contributory medical history and is characterised by severe alveolar bone loss around permanent teeth, [13] usually localised aggressive periodontitis is restricted to permanent first molars and incisors.
Brett et al (16) found a statistically significant association between TaqI polymorphism and both chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Associations of VDR polymorphisms with CP are inconsistent in different studies conducted in various population groups, due to different linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype blocks in populations, small sample sizes, population stratification, and variation in environmental factors between geographically separated areas.
Systemic therapy has demonstrated success in periodontal diseases such as aggressive periodontitis (specifically the former juvenile and refractory periodontitis), where precise bacterial species have been identified.
Xie, "Initial comparison of proteomic profiles of whole unstimulated saliva obtained from generalized aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects," Journal of Periodontal Research, vol.
Aggressive periodontitis is an advanced form of gum disease that occurs in people who are otherwise clinically healthy.
Some authors have indicated that in GCF obtained from patients with advanced or aggressive periodontitis, MMP-8 levels are significantly higher than in patients with a healthy periodontium [29-33].
Timing affects the clinical outcome of adiunctive systemic antibiotic therapy for generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontol.

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