agranulocytosis


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Related to agranulocytosis: neuroleptic malignant syndrome

agranulocytosis

(əgrăn'yəlōsītō`sis), disease in which the production of granulated white blood cells by the bone marrow is impaired. Although the disease may occur spontaneously it is usually induced by exposure to antithyroid drugs, sulfonamides, phenothiazines, chemotherapy, and radiation therapies. Granulocytes protect the body against infectious agents; their depletion results in severe respiratory infections, ulceration of the mouth and colon, high fever, and prostration. These symptoms may occur suddenly or over a period of days or weeks. Penicillin is usually the drug of choice to combat the bacterial invasion. Treatment may require bone marrow transplants to start the production of healthy white blood cells. The fatality rate is high (approaching 80%) in untreated cases, and deaths are common even with antibiotic treatment.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Agranulocytosis

 

(also, agranulocytic angina), the absence or drastic reduction of granulocytes in the blood. Agranulocytosis may develop during various infectious diseases, avitaminoses, and diseases of the hematic system and as a result of the direct action of chemicals (benzene), drugs (aminopyrine, sulfanilamides, antibiotics, and others), and ionizing radiation on the bone marrow. Sometimes agranulocytosis results from an allergic reaction and the formation of autoantibodies against the leukocytes. Acute agranulocytosis is characterized by general indisposition, fever, and ulcerations of the skin and mucous membranes, especially of the oral and pharyngeal cavities. The number of neutrophils in the blood diminishes. Recurrent agranulocytosis is most often connected with repeated ingestion of certain drugs or repeated contact with certain chemicals; periods of aggravation and improvement alternate during its course. Treatment includes elimination of the causes; blood transfusions; administration of vitamins of the B group (B2, B6, B12), hormonal preparations (corticotrophic hormones), and antibiotics; and topical treatment of the ulcerative processes. In especially severe cases, treatment calls for transplanting bone marrow. Prophylaxis involves the isolation of the causative agent and elimination of contact with it.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

agranulocytosis

[¦a‚gran·yə·lō‚sī′tō·səs]
(medicine)
An acute febrile illness, usually resulting from drug hypersensitivity, manifested as severe leukopenia, often with complete disappearance of granulocytes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The incidence of blood complications related to Clozapine including granulocytopenia (neutropenia and agranulocytosis) and leukopenia were evaluated.
* Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
Wills, 'A case of agranulocytosis', KT, October (1939), pp.384-5; E.
Other drugs in the AAP class have also rarely been associated with agranulocytosis.
Agranulocytosis in Sjogren's syndrome: two case reports and analysis of 11 additional reported cases.
In humans, according to a news release from the Massachusetts Bureau of Substance Abuse Services, it can wipe out white blood cells, a condition called agranulocytosis, which prevents the body from fighting off bacteria.
Bone marrow suppression is initially indicated by lymphopenia, likely to be followed by agranulocytosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia peaking at four to eight days after ingestion.
The net proceeds from this financing will be used for general working capital purposes, executing the company's previously announced Phase III clinical trail of vilazodone for the treatment of depression, accelerating the integration of the newly acquired operations, development of genetic markers, and commercialization and market expansion for its genetic tests including its proprietary test for Long QT, Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis and the warfarin response tests.
For example, in a previous study we completed an analysis of racial disparities in inpatient neutropenic cancer patients, a very small portion of neutropenic patients (coded as agranulocytosis ICD-9 288.0) were also coded as having a fever, as defined by ICD-9 diagnoses.