5, a demonstrates water surface deformation by falling jet and air entrainment
In physical hydraulic modelling, scale effects of air entrainment
are substantial and corrections are needed to reasonably approximate prototype situations [19, 20].
For higher injection durations, the half-cone angles decrease again after t [approximately equal to] 1.4 ms due to the air entrainment
at the outside of the spray sheet.
However, with the increase of air entrainment
further away from the nozzle, fuel mass fraction at spray tip decreases, and so do spray-induced density gradients.
Gore, "Air entrainment
flow field induced by a pool fire," Combustion and Flame, vol.
The original study initiated by ASHRAE, undertaken by Hadjisophocleous and Zhou (2007) at Carleton University, and the University of Maryland study by Kerber and Milke (2007) conclude that increased makeup air velocity increases air entrainment
into the fire plume and creates greater volumes of smoke, resulting in a deeper smoke layer.
Here, the emphasis was laid on the air entrainment
Many oxygen therapy devices employ the Venturi effect to accomplish air entrainment
for the purpose of diluting 100% oxygen (used as the source gas) with room air.
But, it has some disadvantages such as scaling effects, time consuming, expensive, requirement of skilled labour and cannot readily capture behavious like cavitation and air entrainment
effects, which occur in reality .
Simultaneous occurrence of free surface and mixed stratified flow conditions appears often in gravity-driven-flow pipelines, but most design criteria do not consider the causes of air entrainment
(Pozos et al., 2010).
In the concrete industry, "air entrainment
" refers to: