This lowers the temperature of combustion in the engine, preventing knocking, expanding the range in which the engine can maintain the ideal air-fuel ratio
and reducing the need to retard ignition timing.
Powell presented control spark timing by location of peak pressure (LPP) in spark ignition (SI) engine in order to make air-fuel ratio
(AFR) to object value .
The resulting data is used as a reference for metering the amount of fuel injected into the engine and determining and implementing the right air-fuel ratio
Maximum efficiency was observed at 13:1 air-fuel ratio
If butanol is compared to ethanol, butanol may be mixed with petrol in a higher ratio and used in the present cars without their modification due to the air-fuel ratio
and the amount of energy is closer to petrol.
characteristic exert a large influence on exhaust emission and fuel economy in Internal Combustion engine.
Building on current engine control capability, Cummins has developed a proprietary air-fuel ratio
control system that employs a dithering control algorithm with dual-loop feedback for rich-burn engines.
A secondary air management system enables the newly designed powerplant to provide approximately 40kg/m of torque during ordinary low-rev driving, which gives an optimum air-fuel ratio
for around-town efficiency and helps the Nissan GT-R meet ultra-low emission vehicle (U-LEV) standards.
Using larger fuel orifices lowers air-fuel ratios
, while reducing the size increases the air-fuel ratio
Spray-stratified GDi uses less fuel by creating a stratified charge with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio
near the spark plug with no fuel outside the mixture plume in the remainder of the chamber.
In consequence, the combustion rate is determined only by the laminar flame propagation velocity, which depends on the mixture's composition, the air-fuel ratio
, the activation energy and the turbulence intensity (Furahama, 1969).
In order to meet the strict Euro standards on exhaust emission levels, the catalyst is uprated, the air-fuel ratio
sensor modified and special multi-hole fuel injectors fitted.