The causal inference was performed by evaluating how changes in gate-in delay at one airport were related to the expected value and distribution of other delay variables: gate-in delay, turnaround, gate-out delay, taxi-out delay, airborne delay, and taxi-in delay.
On-time performance information, such as arrival delay, taxi-in delay, taxi-out delay, block delay, and airborne delay for the city pair MIA to EWR was used to evaluate the delay propagation between airports.
It can be seen that the arrival demand at EWR has the highest impact on arrival delay, followed by block delay, taxi-out delay, arrival efficiency and departure demand at EWR, and airborne delay.
The results confirm the effects of queuing factors such as block delay, taxi-out delay, and airborne delay, as shown in the literature.
Airservices has introduced a new system that will reduce airborne delays, help to save fuel and associated emissions, enhance safety and reduce air traffic congestion at Melbourne Airport.
Already in use at Sydney, Brisbane and Perth airports, the Harmony system will minimise airborne delays for passengers flying into Melbourne Airport.
Meanwhile, airborne delays in Brisbane during morning and evening peak periods have dropped by 35 per cent since Airservices introduced the ground delay system in late 2012.
A world-first deployment of an integrated flow management and arrival management system, which will save airlines tens of millions of dollars in fuel by significantly reducing airborne delays and optimizing flight profiles, is now in operation for flights into Auckland, New Zealand.
Aircraft fly more efficiently due to planned and predictable flight paths, and airborne delays are significantly reduced lowering fuel use and CO?