The causal inference was performed by evaluating how changes in gate-in delay at one airport were related to the expected value and distribution of other delay variables: gate-in delay, turnaround, gate-out delay, taxi-out delay, airborne delay, and taxi-in delay.
On-time performance information, such as arrival delay, taxi-in delay, taxi-out delay, block delay, and airborne delay for the city pair MIA to EWR was used to evaluate the delay propagation between airports.
The results confirm the effects of queuing factors such as block delay, taxi-out delay, and airborne delay, as shown in the literature.
Airport-related factors, such as departure and arrival efficiency, capacity, demand, closed runway time, and traffic volume are major factors impacting flight delays along with queuing factors such as taxi-in delay, taxi-out delay, airborne delay, and block time.
Ground Delay Program (GDP) is an important strategy in Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), which aims at converting airborne delay into safer and more economic ground delay .
In (2), [mathematical expression not reproducible], respectively, represent the total airborne delay time and the total unnecessary delay time of all the flights when the GDP file time is [t.sub.f], the probability distribution of cancellation time is and the probability distribution of airport PAAR is [delta].
The joint end-time-and-distance model incorporates unnecessary delay, total airborne delay, and average ground delay to measure the efficiency of GDP and, meanwhile, takes airline equity and Air Traffic Control (ATC) risks into consideration.
In (9), [mathematical expression not reproducible], respectively, represent total airborne delay of all flights, total ground delay time, average ground delay, standard deviation of ground delays of all nonexempt flights, standard deviation of total ground delays of the airlines, and maximum number of airborne holding aircraft after GDP end time, given that the GDP end time is [t.sub.e], distance is s, and probability distributions of the cancellation time and airport PAAR are [xi] and [delta], respectively.
Here, we make note of the fact that experience indicates that the total airborne delay ranges between 0 and 1200 minutes and unnecessary delay time between 0 and 700 minutes, with average delay between 0 and 120 minutes.