Cigarette smoke drives small airway remodeling
by induction of growth factors in the airway wall.
Despite its established pro-inflammatory actions on COPD, the action of PAF on airway remodeling
has been still unclear.
The cytokine IL-4 is involved in allergic inflammation and airway remodeling
The study found that the MSCs reduced inflammation, reversed signs of airway remodeling
and completely normalized airway/lung fibrosis and airway hyper-responsiveness, particularly when delivered intra -nasally.
in the lower respiratory tract is associated with increased disease severity in asthma patients .
These changes in airway structure result from chronic inflammation and airway remodeling
(Woolcock and Permutt 2011).
The study is the latest effort by researchers to better understand the processes that are involved in airway remodeling
that can cause breathing difficulties in patients with asthma.
involves permanent alterations of the architecture of the airways.
Vitamin D acts on bronchial smooth muscle cells and may play a role in the airway remodeling
that occurs in long-standing asthma.
Decades of airway remodeling
due to chronic inflammation lessen the likelihood of successful treatment.
And although the jury is still out on whether as-needed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) positively affect airway remodeling
, there is likewise little firm evidence that daily use is any more effective.
The fusion protein also inhibits neutrophil elastase, mast cell chymase and tryptase, and thrombin, all of which may be involved in airway remodeling