Liang et al., "HMGB1 contributes to allergen-induced airway remodeling
in a murine model of chronic asthma by modulating airway inflammation and activating lung fibroblasts," Cellular and Molecular Immunology, vol.
Niimi et al., "CT-assessed large airway involvement and lung function decline in eosinophilic asthma: The association between induced sputum eosinophil differential counts and airway remodeling
," Journal of Asthma, vol.
Aerobic Exercise Inhibits Smoke-Induced Airway Remodeling
and Lung Emphysema.
COPD is a dynamic process encompassing chronic lung injury and airway remodeling
. Increasing resistance in peripheral airways less than 2-3 mm in diameter is one of the main pathological progressions of COPD and is primarily caused by small airway fibrosis [19, 20].
Hamid, "Role of transforming growth factor-[beta] in airway remodeling
in asthma," American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol.
(32,33) Although the mechanisms are discussed below as distinct theories, there is considerable overlap between them, and it is likely that emphysema and airway remodeling
are a consequence of the interplay of the inflammatory and immunologic systems, resulting in genetic alterations and abnormal maintenance and repair of the lung.
in asthma and irreversible airow limitation-ECM deposition in airway and possible therapy for remodeling.
Current asthma therapies are mostly effective in ameliorating inflammatory responses if airway remodeling
processes are not already in progress, once they are present the animal became poorly responsive to those agents [47, 69], Therefore, new therapeutic alternatives and approaches are required to control and prevent asthma as well the RAO symptoms in horses , One option to improve clinical signs is controlling the environment in order to reduce allergens exposure [9, 10, 37] through the use of pelleted feeding  and improving air breathing quality by promoting good ventilation.
Kips, "Effect of combining salmeterol and fluticasone on the progression of airway remodeling
," American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.
Hamid, "Airway remodeling
in asthma," Allergology International, vol.
Together, these data imply that the exposure of the airways to external factors with intrinsic proteolytic activity affects the relative level of immuno-modulatory cytokines, which may affect inflammation and microvessel formation and airway remodeling
. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of HDM extract on the release and degradation of a panel of cytokines that have proinflammatory and angiogenic activity and are implicated in airway wall remodeling.
It has been well documented that in HRCT scans asthmatic patients manifest more abnormalities related to permanent airway remodeling
such as bronchial dilatation and bronchiectasis than do normal subjects.