Zhou et al., "The stimulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by ionic products from akermanite
dissolution via activation of the ERK pathway," Biomaterials, vol.
In addition, the content of other secondary Ca-silicates (merwinite, wollastonite and akermanite
) is remarkably lower (< 12% in total) than in other oil shale ashes .
Zhang et al., "In vitro and in vivo evaluation of akermanite
bioceramics for bone regeneration," Biomaterials, vol.
Slag consists of calcium magnesium silicate (akermanite
) and calcium aluminium silicate (gehlenite) (Li and Gilkes 2002).
Chen et al., "Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite
and [beta]-TCP bioceramics," European Cells and Materials, vol.
The difference is also evident in the appearance of akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and C4AF [[Ca.sub.2][(Al,[Fe.sup.3+]).sub.2] [O.sub.5]] in all types of ashes of the Eesti TPP (Table 2).
In the Balti TPP secondary Ca-silicates are represented mainly by [beta]-C2S (belite), merwinite and wollastonite; while in the Eesti TPP also C3S, rankinite, as well as C4AF and akermanite are found.
For some unknown reason, akermanite
and orebroite (a second entry) appear after zykaite.