alanine


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alanine

(ăl`ənēn'), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistrystereochemistry,
study of the three-dimensional configuration of the atoms that make up a molecule and the ways in which this arrangement affects the physical and chemical properties of the molecule.
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). Its side chain is a nonpolar, hydrophobic methyl group. The low reactivity of the amino acid permits silk, a protein which contains some 30% alanine, to have a simple, elongated structure with few cross-links. This contributes to the desirable features of the fiber-strength, resistance to stretching, and flexibility. Alanine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized from other cellular metabolites. It was discovered in protein in 1875.

alanine

[′al·ə‚nēn]
(biochemistry)
C3H7NO2 A white, crystalline, nonessential amino acid of the pyruvic acid family.
References in periodicals archive ?
2001###In-vitro 1H-MRS.###-Lactate###-Increase in lactate alanine and Gln in terminal stage of ECM.###-Decrease in cerebral blood flow in ECM;
To reveal the distribution of alanine and arginine spots on the narrow band TLC plate, FTIR mapping technique under linear scan mode was utilized.
However, several years ago a study of the effects of sunlight and fluorescent light on irradiated alanine was published that claimed these effects were significant and should be taken into account in alanine dosimetry [9].
Bacterial production of isoleucine in L-6 medium: In the L6 medium as a whole, alanine and valine were the most frequently produced amino acids.
Larvae were continuously exposed to radiolabeled alanine and palmitic acid (each at 1 [Mu]M added concentration) for 10, 60, or 120 min.
Measurement of alanine transport rates by antarctic and temperate larvae
Transport rates were measured by incubating oocytes in ND96 containing 100 [micro]mol [l.sup.-1] alanine (specific activity, 0.37 kBq nmol [l.sup.-1]; total activity per 200 [micro]1 assay = 187 kBq).
As preliminary results, the relative effects on four sites of methionine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and comparison of oxidation stability effects on those of each mutated methionine to alanine, glycine, isoleucine, or leucine has been determined.
Viramune (nevirapine) may raise levels of alanine aminotransferase.
The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the metabolic adaptations to chronic sulphide exposure for 10 days by measuring PK and PEPCK enzyme activities, succinate and alanine content, the adenylate energy charge (AEC), and the activity of the electron transport system (ETS) in whole oysters at above 20 [micro]M.
Replacing a single amino acid with either alanine or arginine, or adding alanine or arginine to the amino acid sequence, significantly improved the sweetness profiles of the variants.