alanine


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alanine

(ăl`ənēn'), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistrystereochemistry,
study of the three-dimensional configuration of the atoms that make up a molecule and the ways in which this arrangement affects the physical and chemical properties of the molecule.
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). Its side chain is a nonpolar, hydrophobic methyl group. The low reactivity of the amino acid permits silk, a protein which contains some 30% alanine, to have a simple, elongated structure with few cross-links. This contributes to the desirable features of the fiber-strength, resistance to stretching, and flexibility. Alanine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized from other cellular metabolites. It was discovered in protein in 1875.

alanine

[′al·ə‚nēn]
(biochemistry)
C3H7NO2 A white, crystalline, nonessential amino acid of the pyruvic acid family.
References in periodicals archive ?
The metabolic cycles for alanine, glutamine, lactate, and pyruvate from the muscle to the kidney, and the concentrations of alanine, glutamine, lactate, and pyruvate in the muscle, plasma, and urine before and after exercise.
In a study conducted in America, to establish the variability in the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) across different laboratories, it was found that there is wide variability in ALT ULN across different laboratories11.
With APN (Helicoverpa armigera) loop 1 mutant with proline replaced with alanine showed one salt bridge and mutant withT332A and H334L showed two salt bridges whereas Cry2Ac11 showed no salt bridge formation with APN.
2] Nonstandard abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; P5P, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.
However, several years ago a study of the effects of sunlight and fluorescent light on irradiated alanine was published that claimed these effects were significant and should be taken into account in alanine dosimetry [9].
Bacteria from both sources produced aspartic acid and alanine in molasses media (M-I, M-II).
Significant differences in alanine transport rates were observed between oocytes of Xenopus laevis injected with cRNA encoding either Sp-AT1, Sp-AT2, or Sp-AT3, and control oocytes injected with nuclease-free water (Fig.
1997, Greenway & Storey 1999), and the level of alanine leads to a reduction in its activity.
Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline.
19) Elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase may suggest hepatic injury, but these elevations along with significantly elevated levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and a high ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase should indicate the correct diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis.
2 mg/dL, serum alanine aminotransferase level 63 IU/L, and serum aspartate aminotransferase level 56 IU/L.