DN is characterized by the appearance of persistent clinical albuminuria
(albumin excretion rate (AER) > 300 mg/24 h) and a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 5 years in the absence of urinary tract infections, other kidney diseases, or cardiac insufficiency .
The AUC of albuminuria
during the initial 2-year observation period was 0.684 (95% CI: 0.620-0.748) and the AUC of mean eGFR in the initial 2-year observation period was 0.576 (95% CI: 0.500-0.652).
This manifests as reductions in albuminuria
and stabilization of eGFR (Wanner, 2017).
Measures of kidney function were strongly associated with sRAGE and esRAGE, with higher sRAGE and esRAGE concentrations in those with worse kidney parameters (lower eGFR, lower serum albumin, higher albuminuria
, or higher predicted CKD risk based on KDIGO eGFR and albuminuria
One study used other antihypertensives to achieve target blood pressure, and another included patients of any albuminuria
The crude survival analysis using KM survival curves along with the ORs and chi-square test showed significant association between CVD risk and the following factors: age, [HbA.sub.1c], albuminuria
, BMI, DM duration, HTN, and total cholesterol.
For every client, dates and results of all biochemical tests for serum creatinine (sCR), albuminuria
(urinary albumin to creatinine ratio [ACR]), and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were recorded for the audit period (five years preceding the date of HD-start), from hospital and community health centre electronic health records.
It has also been described that podocyte foot process effacement is an early marker of nephropathy in young classic Fabry patients without albuminuria
. For this reason, renal biopsies may be essential in the early diagnosis of FD nephropathy and also in the evaluation of ERT response .
By forming foot processes and slit diaphragms, podocytes play central roles to prevent albuminuria
in a normal state.
, who observed correlation between uNGAL and albuminuria
among 177 patients with T2DM and normal eGFR during 3.5 years of follow-up.
Recently, a prospective cohort study in multi-ethnic Asian adults showed that decreased eGFR and increased albuminuria
were independently associated with incident CVD.
Markers of kidney damage include the following: albuminuria
(albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) [greater than or equal to] 30 mg/24 hours; ACR [greater than or equal to] 30 mg/g [[greater than or equal to] 3 mg/ mmol]); urine sediment abnormalities; electrolyte and other abnormalities due to tubular disorders; abnormalities detected by histology; structural abnormalities detected by imaging; and history of kidney trans plantation.