aldehyde

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aldehyde

(ăl`dəhīd) [alcohol + New Lat. dehydrogenatus=dehydrogenated], any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl groupcarbonyl group
, in chemistry, functional group that consists of an oxygen atom joined by a double bond to a carbon atom. The carbon atom is joined to the remainder of the molecule by two single bonds or one double bond.
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, , and in which the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen; the general formula for an aldehyde is RCHO, where R is hydrogen or an alkyl or aryl group. Aldehydes are formed by partial oxidation of primary alcohols and form carboxylic acids when they are further oxidized. The common name for an aldehyde is often derived from the name of the acid it forms; the IUPAC name is usually derived from the name of the alcohol from which it is formed. Low molecular weight aldehydes, e.g., formaldehydeformaldehyde
, HCHO, the simplest aldehyde. It melts at −92°C;, boils at −21°C;, and is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; at STP, it is a flammable, poisonous, colorless gas with a suffocating odor.
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 and acetaldehydeacetaldehyde
or ethanal
, CH3CHO, colorless liquid aldehyde, sometimes simply called aldehyde. It melts at −123°C;, boils at 20.8°C;, and is soluble in water and ethanol.
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, have sharp, unpleasant odors; higher molecular weight aldehydes, e.g., benzaldehydebenzaldehyde
or benzenecarbonal
, C6H5CHO, colorless liquid aldehyde with a characteristic almond odor. It boils at 180°C;, is soluble in ethanol, but is insoluble in water.
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 and furfuralfurfural
or furfuraldehyde
[Lat.,=bran], C4H3OCHO, viscous, colorless liquid that has a pleasant aromatic odor; upon exposure to air it turns dark brown or black. It boils at about 160°C;.
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, have pleasant, often flowery, odors and are found in the essential oilsessential oils,
volatile oils that occur in plants and in general give to the plants their characteristic odors, flavors, or other such properties. Essential oils are found in various parts of the plant body (in the seeds, flowers, bark, or leaves) and are also concentrated in
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 of certain plants. Aldehydes are used for the manufacture of synthetic resins, e.g., bakelite, and for making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes, and other chemicals. Some are used as preservatives and disinfectants.
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aldehyde

[′al·də‚hīd]
(organic chemistry)
One of a class of organic compounds containing the CHO radical.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

aldehyde

1. any organic compound containing the group -CHO. Aldehydes are oxidized to carboxylic acids and take part in many addition reactions
2. consisting of, containing, or concerned with the group -CHO
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
This method [64] tests for the presence of free carbonyl groups, of reducing sugars produced from starch fragmentation, as during the redox reaction between sugars (starch fragments) and silver nitrate, the sugars are turned to the oxidized form with more aldehydic and/or ketonic groups.
Consequently, initiates a photooxidation reaction resulting in the generation of new aldehydic end groups in the CMS chain.
Oxidative damage, mediated by reactive oxygen species, generates deleterious reactive aldehydic byproducts including carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and advanced glycation end (AGE) products such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine [99].
Spiteller, "Previously unknown aldehydic lipid peroxidation compounds of arachidonic acid," Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol.
This involves the mechanism of oxidative decomposition of n-3 and n-6 PUFA membrane phospholipids leading to formation of complex mixtures of lipid hydroperoxide aldehydic end products such as MDA.
These aldehydic secondary products of lipid peroxidation are generally accepted markers of oxidative stress.
In the first step, the aldehydic group of the terminal residue of HA, generated by opening the sugar ring, reacts, in acidic medium, with the amino group of PE forming the unstable imine.
Figure 4 shows the peaks near 3440 [cm.sup.-1], 2924 [cm.sup.-1], and 2854 [cm.sup.-1] assigned to OH stretching and aldehydic C-H stretching, respectively.
The reaction proceeds through condensation of amino group with aldehydic group of 1,8-naphthyridines; it is the sulfur atom that reacts with the carbon next to the chlorine at [C.sub.2] of 1,8-naphthyridines, which resulted in the desired 1,5-benzothiazepines 92a-j.
"These, crisp, cold, fashionable scents are achieved using ingredients with herbal, menthol nuances, as well as white floral notes and aldehydic notes."
She argues that this transformation is precisely where glamour emerges, and what she calls "the aldehydic effects of Stevens's poetry" surface as he "pursues the shift from mere sensory object to magical emanation through the force of the invisible, ordering structure" (23).
Amino group available in Cephradine reacted with the aldehydic group of sugars (aldoses) to yield Schiff bases.