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At the same time, however, aleatory music, while much less familiar to most students, is of considerable interest not only because it provides an apt metaphor in sound for the increasing social freedoms that have marked the last forty years (in the West, al least), (23) but also because much of it was actually written well before the trends that, in retrospect, it seems to prefigure.
The piece also could be an interesting way to approach aleatory music for the first time with students leading naturally to more modern approaches to the style.
It is in this context that one may begin to understand the appeal of serialism, as well as the various challenges--for example, electronic and aleatory music, as well as the use of a range of "noisy" effects such as syncopation, chromaticism, dissonance, and atonality--that proliferated both within and without the academy throughout the past century.
4'33" is aleatory music inasmuch as chance determines what real-world sounds will fill the silence.
Three entirely new chapters discuss Schonberg and his twelve-note disciples, the technological explosion and its consequences (recordings, electronics, the Moog Synthesiser), and the ultimate collapse of tonality into aleatory music, indeterminacy, and minimalism.