Amorphous phosphates are similar in general appearance, but tend to form in alkaline urine
and lack color.
The alkaline urine
PH despite significantly low serum bicarbonate and the adequate response to relatively low alkali supplementation was more in favor of a distal RTA.
The main factors, summarised in Table 2 and Figure 1, are female gender, increased dietary tryptophan, alkaline urine
, constipation, chronic catheterisation, high urinary bacterial load, renal failure, and the use of a polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic catheter .
In the incomplete renal tubular acidosis kidney is unable to acidify urine to a pH lower than 5.0, wherein direct/complete renal tubular acidosis kidney has very little capacity for acidification with result that alkaline urine
Test strips may give false positive results as it can be in case of alkaline urine
(pH > 7.5), if the test strip is held submerged in urine for too long, in highly concentrated urine, intense hematuria, when using penicillin, sulfonamides and other drugs, in the presence of pus, seed or vaginal secretions.
Struvite crystals are found in alkaline urine
and are very common in infections caused by urea-splitting bacteria such as Proteus and Pseudomonas species.
Struvite stones form in alkaline urine
from infection with a urea-splitting organism and these stones can be treated with minimally invasive surgical techniques if the stone burden is small.
In general, alkaline urine
is more likely to cause a proliferation of bacterial flora; consequently, alkaline urine
is a risk factor for PUBS.
Other causative factors may include constipation, female gender, the presence of bacteria containing sulphatase and phosphatase enzymes, and alkaline urine
. While the contributing factors for PUBS are linked with high morbidity, PUBS itself is a benign condition.
conditions may decrease the urinary elimination of memantine, resulting in increased plasma levels and a possible increase in adverse effects.
It is most commonly associated with female gender, constipation, alkaline urine
, institutionalization and use of plastic urinary collecting bags.
In alkaline urine
, fluoride excretion is much more as compared to acidic urine .