In simpler words, they're solids with a relatively open, three-dimensional crystal structure built from the elements aluminum, oxygen, and silicon, with alkali or alkaline-Earth metals
(such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium) plus water molecules trapped in the gaps between them.
Among the plans that will be investigated by the researchers in the near future, mention can be made of the addition of various percentages of alkali and alkaline-earth metals
as promoter on this catalyst and studying their effect on steam reforming of methane and also on dry reforming of methane.
Contributors from Europe and South Africa provide background on ferroalloy basics, thermodynamics, the kinetics of reduction and general processing issues, electric furnace operations, environmental issues, and other general topics, followed by the theory and technology of ferroalloys with silicon, manganese, high carbon, and chromium, and minor ferroalloys like ferronickel, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, titanium, zirconium, boron, and rare-earth and alkaline-earth metals
. Each includes information on the element and its properties, reactions, and equilibria with other major relevant elements, as well as raw materials for it and methods of preparation, smelting techniques, and processing details.
Alkaline and alkaline-earth metals
compounds as catalysts for the methanolysis of sunflower oil.
Fluorides and chlorides of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals
are used as additions, which enable improvement of various technological and metallurgical properties of the flux (Table 1), whereby one of the main requirements to fluxes for electroslag welding (ESW) and electroslag remelting (ESR) of titanium is complete absence of oxides, because presence in flux even in small amounts of such stable oxides as [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3], ZrO and Ti[O.sub.2] does not exclude possibility of titanium contamination by oxygen [2-3].
The continental biosphere has greatly speeded up the rate of erosion of the surfaces of the continents and has given it special characteristics: increase in the pressure of CO2 in the soil and the addition of organic acids and speeding up the decomposition of silicates, all of which lead to the liberation of silica and alkaline-earth metals
Oxide cathodes of that time represented a mixture of oxides of such alkaline-earth metals as calcium, strontium and barium.
When designing oxide cathode for welding electric arc we proceeded from the fact that the best base is destoichiometrized Zr[O.sub.2], and the best emission additives are oxides of alkaline-earth metals. As far as the technology itself of producing mixtures of these two components is concerned, we used for this purpose powder metallurgy.