They are commercially prepared by adjusting acidity to simulate acidotic, alkalotic
, and normal specimens.
Some patients have lung disease or other respiratory pathology that chronically limits their ability to achieve a minute ventilation high enough to keep their PaC02 in a normal range and their body compensates for the high PaC02 and low pH by allowing the kidneys to retain more of the alkalotic
bicarbonate ion (HC03-) to neutralize the acidic C02 and bring the pH back toward the normal 7.4.
On the other hand, research conducted in male runners has shown that a dose of sodium citrate that is sufficient for inducing an alkalotic
state and that is ingested with water also induces an increase in both plasma volume and body mass (Oopik et al., 2003; 2004).
A pH of less than 7.35 is acidotic, while a value of more than 7.45 is alkalotic
. Thus an ABG value with pH of 7.3 is labeled as a state of acidosis, while a 7.50 pH is considered as a state of alkalosis.