alkane


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alkane

alkane (ălˈkān), any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bond). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. An alkane is said to have a continuous chain if each carbon atom in its molecule is joined to at most two other carbon atoms; it is said to have a branched chain if any of its carbon atoms is joined to more than two other carbon atoms. The first four continuous-chain alkanes are methane, CH4; ethane, C2H6; propane, C3H8; and butane, C4H10. Names of continuous-chain alkanes whose molecules contain more than five carbon atoms are formed from a root that indicates the number of carbon atoms and the suffix -ane to indicate that the compound is an alkane; e.g., alkanes with 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their molecules are pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, and decane, respectively. The name of a branched-chain alkane is formed by adding prefixes to the name of the continuous-chain alkane from which it is considered to be derived; e.g., 2-methylpropane (called also isobutane) is thought of as being derived by replacing one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to the second (2-) carbon atom of a propane molecule with a methyl (CH3) group, forming CH3CH(CH3)2. Chemically, the alkanes are relatively unreactive. They are obtained by fractional distillation from petroleum and are used extensively as fuels. The alkanes are sometimes referred to as the methane series (after the simplest alkane) or as paraffins.

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alkane

[′al‚kān]
(organic chemistry)
A member of a series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having the empirical formula C n H2 n + 2. Also known as paraffin; paraffinic hydrocarbon.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

alkane

a. any saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2
b. (as modifier): alkane series
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
At lower temperatures the clearly defined components (match quality > 80%) included mainly alkanes, oxygen-containing compounds and some heteroatomic compounds.
Where F32 is the mean fecal concentration of even chain n-alkane after CRC dosed, [B.sub.32] is the background concentration of even-chain n-alkane before CRC administrated; FO is the mean fecal DM output measured during 3 days after CRC administration; [AFR.sub.32] is the recovery rate of [C.sub.32] alkane in feces measured in previous study (Sun et al., 2008).
A selection of pure alkanes and straight-chain alkane mixtures were chosen for the experiment.
RESULTS: We found that 24-hr transition metals and alkanes were associated with increased odds [0.26%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.02-0.48; and 0.37%; 95% CI, 0.04-0.72, respectively] of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Mat Zuckerman, Chief Executive Officer of Alkane. "Operators have long asked: why three grades of fuel for cars, while truckers can only buy one grade of diesel?
Interpretation of odd-even alkane predominance can be potentially complicated by the presence of certain bacteria which have been shown to exhibit high molecular weight n-alkane distributions showing no odd carbon preference (Han and Calvin, 1969).