When comparing the conventional technique of homogeneous alkylation
to that utilizing a quaternary ammonium salt, similar results are obtained.
This can be explained by the fact that introduction of alkyl moiety into protected hydrazine increases nucleophilicity of hydrazine, making the monoalkylated compound prone to undergo a second alkylation
. In order to suppress polyalkylation, an at least 3-fold excess of hydrazine was used in further experiments.
Cymene (methylisopropylbenzene) production is commercially carried out by alkylation
of toluene with propene.
Cipla apparently does the same phosphate alkylation
, but the only patent filing of theirs that I can find that addresses tenofovir production is this one (http://bit.ly/iTvl4u), on its crystalline form.
Repsol YPF SA (BMAD: REP), a Spain-based oil and gas company, has closed an alkylation
unit at its Petronor refinery in Bilbao, Spain on May 23, 2011.
The 1-alkylimidazoles and pyridine compounds have proven to be good precursors for the development of alkylation
ILs (Wasserscheid & Welton 2003).
A number of environmental toxins and chemotherapy drugs are alkylation
agents that can attack DNA.
is an operation in petroleum refining which produces a high value blend for transport fuels, alkylate, with a high octane rating; it contains no aromatic compounds or olefins and is "essentially free of sulphur and other impurities" (Hommeltoft, 2003).
The 6in pipe, located at a section of Stanlow known as the HF Alkylation
plant, had been neglected for years, Mr Parrington said, adding: "The company failed in its duty to take the necessary measures to avoid a serious accident.
For example, Lawrence Wein, a professor of management science at the Stanford Business School, has determined that for a conversion cost of $20 million to $30 million per refinery, sulfuric acid could replace hydrofluoric acid in the alkylation
process used to manufacture high-octane gasoline.
Of these, 50 use hydrofluoric acid in their alkylation
process, which provides high octane while maintaining low sulfur and nitrogen content.
2005), the proximate cause of mercury alkylation
in oral microbial communities--which occurs in dental plaque--appears to be associated with the presence of some bacteria.