alkyne


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

alkyne

(ăl`kīn), any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (see chemical bondchemical bond,
mechanism whereby atoms combine to form molecules. There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are strong enough to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to be regarded as an
..... Click the link for more information.
). Alkynes with one triple bond have the general formula CnH2n−2. In the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) system of chemical nomenclature, the name of an alkyne is derived from the name of the corresponding alkanealkane
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bond). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2.
..... Click the link for more information.
 by replacing the -ane alkane suffix with -yne and, if necessary, adding a prefix to indicate the location of the triple bond in the molecule. The IUPAC name of the simplest alkyne, HC≡CH, is thus ethyne, which is derived from ethane. Ethyne is more commonly known as acetyleneacetylene
or ethyne
, HC≡CH, a colorless gas. It melts at −80.8°C; and boils at −84.0°C;. Offensive odors often noted in commercial acetylene are due to impurities. Acetylene forms explosive mixtures with oxygen or air.
..... Click the link for more information.
; it is an extremely important starting material in commercial chemical synthesis. The next simplest alkyne is propyne, CH3C≡CH. There are two butynes, 1-butyne and 2-butyne, which are structural isomersisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
..... Click the link for more information.
 that differ in the location of the triple bond in their molecule. The alkynes are sometimes referred to as the acetylene series, the higher members of the series being named as derivatives of acetylene, e.g., propyne as methylacetylene, 1-butyne as ethylacetylene, and 2-butyne as dimethylacetylene. The usefulness of the alkynes in chemical synthesis is due both to the reactions of the triple bond itself and to the relative acidity of a hydrogen atom bonded to a triply bonded carbon.

alkyne

[′al‚kīn]
(organic chemistry)
One of a group of organic compounds containing a carbon-to-carbon triple bond.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nugent et al., "Efficiency and fidelity in a click-chemistry route to triazole dendrimers by the copper(I)-catalyzed ligation of azides and alkynes," Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.
Singh, "Alkyne hydroamination triggered cyclizations: A powerful tool for the construction of biologically important structural motifs," Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, vol.
Moreover, the efficiency of incorporating modified bases during PCR is significantly influenced by the structure of the modifications: bases, which contain alkyne linker, are recognized as a substrate by a larger number of DNA polymerases, while bases with aminolinker are more difficult for incorporation.
(2013) An efficient cis-reduction of alkyne to alkene in the presence of a vinyl iodide: stereoselective synthesis of the C22-C31 fragment of leiodolide A.
Caption: Molecules with a diazonium group on one end and an alkyne group on another can serve as a 'primer' to build up ultra-thin layers of electronically active molecules.
Carbohydrate-based sensors made by clicking azide functionalized sugars onto alkyne terminated SAMs on gold could lead to potential applications in high-throughput characterization of carbohydrate-protein interactions.
Some alkali metal alkyl amides as alkyne isomerization reagents: Selective isomerization of one triple bond of a diynol.
(2) Nucleophilic substitution of activated alkyne derivatives: This approach will build upon the method recently developed in the rstad group for fluorination of aromatics via nucleophilic displacement of a sulfonium salt (X=SAr2 as shown, unpublished work).
Copere, "An N-heterocyclic carbene ligand promotes highly selective alkyne semihydrogenation with copper nanoparticles supported on passivated silica," Chemical Science, vol.
Twenty-four further contributions then cover materials including vinyl monomers, cannabis indica fibers, jute fibers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, oxidized regenerated cellulose, polyacrylamide, cellulose nanowhisker, and sulfonyl terminals; techniques such as azide alkyne cycloaddition, gamma and electron beam irradiation, radical polymerization, UV grafting, self-assembly, and click chemistry; perspectives on the field in general including an assessment of progress in the field and characterization of copolymers; and applications such as toxin removal, antimicrobial activity, bleeding control, wound healing, intelligent response, and drug delivery.