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(kənjəngtəvī`təs), inflammation or infection of the mucosal membrane that covers the eyeball and lines the eyelid, usually acute, caused by a virus or, less often, by a bacillus, an allergic reaction, or an irritating chemical. Commonly called pinkeye, mild conjunctivitis usually causes redness, discharge, and itching of the membrane. Conjunctivitis may also be associated with upper respiratory infection or with childhood diseases such as measles. Bacterial forms of the disorder, whether chronic or acute, are treated successfully with antibiotics, and although viral conjunctivitis will clear up on its own in 8 to 10 days, antibiotic eyedrops or ointments are often prescribed for most cases of the disease in order to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis. Trachomatrachoma
, infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma affects at least 86 million people worldwide. An estimated 1.
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, though rare in the United States, is a severe conjunctivitis that can cause loss of vision. Another severe form of conjunctivitis is caused by the gonococcus bacterium and is usually associated with a genital infection. Conjunctivitis in newborn infants, called ophthalmia neonatorum, was a problem at one time; however, routine instillation of silver nitrate solution into the eyes of newborn infants has materially reduced the incidence of blindness.



inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease. It may be exogenous or endogenous in origin; the former is more frequent. Exogenous conjunctivitis is caused by various microbes, including streptococci, staphylococci, the diphtheria bacillus, and gonococci. The Koch-Weeks bacillus and the Morax-Axenfeld diplococcus are specific for conjunctivitis. The cause is also often viral infection. In addition, the condition may result from mechanical irritation, such as by foreign bodies, from exposure to heat, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, or chemical agents.

Endogenous conjunctivitides arise in the presence of systemic infections (measles, scarlet fever), inflammations of the nasopharynx or teeth, or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or liver. There are also allergic conjunctivitides.

Conjunctivitis is classified as either acute or chronic, according to its course. Acute conjunctivitis is manifested by a purulent discharge from the eye and redness (hyperemia) of the palpebral and ocular conjunctivae and sometimes by punctate hemorrhages under the conjunctiva and conjunctival edema. In some cases the surface of the conjunctiva becomes rough, a result of the appearance in it of ridged formations, or follicles, and papillae. Chronic conjunctivitis shows moderate changes in the conjunctiva. Most notable are subjective sensations, such as a feeling of dust in the eye and photophobia. Conjunctivitis is treated with sulfanilamides and antibiotic eyedrops. Hormonal (corticosteroid) preparations are used in some cases. In cases with purulent discharge the eyes are irrigated with boric acid solution or with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.


Conjunctivitis in animals is most often observed as a symptom of various other diseases. The causes of independent conjunctivitides in animals may be mechanical, chemical, or radiant irritants or the causative agents of certain infectious diseases. The principal manifestation is conjunctival hyperemia. The condition is treated by eliminating the primary causes and using antiseptic solutions.


Arkhangel’skii, V. N. Glaznye bolezni, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969. Pages 124–33.
Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po glaznym bolezniam, vol. 2, book 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 46–186.


Inflammation of the conjunctiva.


inflammation of the conjunctiva
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1%) of the cases in Group-II were found to have allergic conjunctivitis non symptomatic under anti allergic treatment before the CXL.
He said that the allergic conjunctivitis is irritating and uncomfortable, but it will not hurt patients eyesight unless it is very severe and infectious conjunctivitis.
The main driver of the expansion of the allergic conjunctivitis market will be the introduction of three new therapies across the 6 major markets.
Hence, these compounds are preferred over corticosteroids in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
Chronic reactions occur with persistent exposure to allergens and are more likely to occur in perennial allergic conjunctivitis.
The study demonstrated high therapeutic efficacy of "Eyecrol" medication in therapy of chronic noninfectious and allergic conjunctivitis.
1% ophtalmic solution as 1-2 drops every 6-8 hours in allergic conjunctivitis was approved in children aged 3 years and older (36).
Discussion: The murine model developed is similar to the human allergic conjunctivitis both clinically and histopathologically and can be used as a template for future studies.
Contact lens wearers who suffer from allergic conjunctivitis are often managed by temporarily ceasing lens wear, as the causative allergen(s) might attach to the surface of the lens (Figure 2) and prolong exposure to the ocular surface (and therefore increase signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis).
Although this was a small study designed to determine how allergic conjunctivitis affected people in their working lives, it reflects the upward trend in allergy incidence," Dr Collum explained.
NEW ORLEANS -- Patients could one day use their eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis to treat their other symptoms of seasonal allergies.
In 12 patients with diagnoses of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and/or bronchial obstructive disease, the nasal spray was given immediately after the appearance of characteristic allergic nasal symptoms.