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inflammation of the membrane lining a sinus, esp a nasal sinus



an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses in man and animals. In humans, acute sinusitis usually arises as a complication of influenza, acute respiratory diseases, or other infectious diseases; chronic sinusitis develops from acute sinusitis that has not been completely cured.

The general symptoms of acute sinusitis include elevated body temperature, headache, abundant nasal discharge, and difficulty in breathing through the nose, most often on one side. With chronic sinusitis, there is usually no increase in body temperature and the other symptoms are less pronounced. Localization of the process determines the symptoms. Sinusitis may be catarrhal or purulent, depending on the type of inflammation. With chronic sinusitis, proliferations of the mucosa (polyps) often form in the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Several different forms of sinusitis are distinguished, depending on which sinus is affected. The most common form is maxillary sinusitis, which is an inflammation of the maxillary sinus. With frontal sinusitis, the frontal sinus becomes inflamed; with ethmoid sinusitis, the ethmoidal labyrinth; and with sphenoid sinusitis, the sphenoidal sinus. Sometimes the inflammatory process spreads to all the paranasal sinuses on one or both sides (pansinusitis). Treatment includes the use of medicinal agents, the administration of heat (hot-water bag, compress), and physical therapy. Sometimes surgical treatment is indicated. Prophylaxis includes the timely treatment of the cause of the disease. [23–1294–]


Inflammation of a paranasal sinus.
References in periodicals archive ?
An empirically devised regimen for treating allergic fungal sinusitis appears to reduce the need for surgery, Dr.
Telmesani Prevalence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with nasal polyps Ann Saudi Med.
Since its description by Saferstein (4) and the histopathologic association of allergic mucin with mucoid impaction of the bronchus and acute bronchopulmonary fungal disease, otolaryngologists and pathologists have come to accept allergic fungal sinusitis as an entity and acknowledge that different species of fungus are associated with this finding.
Allergic fungal sinusitis usually occurs in young immunocompetent patients ranging in age from early childhood to their late 40s, and it demonstrates equal sex distribution.
In general, management of allergic fungal sinusitis requires a combination of surgery and medical therapy to achieve the best long-term clinical outcome.
Patients and Methods: In a prospective clinical study carried out in tertiary health care centre of central India for a period of 2 years, 60 patients who underwent FESS for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis were followed up for a period of 6 months.
DISCUSSION: Allergic fungal sinusitis is being increasingly seen in various parts of the world with higher incidence in Southwestern states of the USA, 7 Sudan, northern India, (8, 9) and Saudi Arabia.
Major criteria for the presence of allergic fungal sinusitis include nasal polyposis, evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, eosinophilic mucus, characteristic CT findings of unilateral involvement and hyperdense areas in the affected sinus, and a positive fungal culture.
Subsequent case reports described identical findings with other fungi, and the disease was termed allergic fungal sinusitis.
This case illustrates the fact that A flavus can colonize nasopharyngeal tissue in the absence of immunocompromise or allergic fungal sinusitis and that it can be associated with oxalosis.
The panel members agree that middle turbinate resection, either subtotal or total, might be indicated for patients who have a paradoxically bent middle turbinate, a concha bullosa, or significant polyposis, particularly patients who have eosinophilic mucinous rhinosinusitis or allergic fungal sinusitis.
It is true that some cases are caused by a bacterial or viral infection, but others are the result of some form of inflammation or allergy, such as allergic fungal sinusitis.