alopecia

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Related to alopecia universalis: alopecia areata

alopecia

(ăl'əpē`shēə): see baldnessbaldness,
thinning or loss of hair as a result of illness, functional disorder, or hereditary disposition; also known as alopecia. Male pattern baldness, a genetic trait, is the most common cause of baldness among white males.
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Alopecia

 

(baldness), thinning or complete absence of hair in an isolated area or on the entire surface of the skin.

Alopecia is usually localized on the scalp and face; less frequently, it is localized in the armpits, the pubic region, or elsewhere. Congenital, premature, senile, and other forms of the disease exist. Symptomatic alopecia—the result of acute infections, nervous diseases, poisoning, endocrine disorders, fungal diseases, or secondary syphilis—is characterized by the temporary focal or diffuse loss of hair in any region of the body; the skin remains unaltered at the morbid site. Alopecia areata, a special type of baldness, is manifested by the sudden appearance of hairless foci that are round or oval and well defined. With the merging of these foci, complete baldness can occur; the skin is unchanged and subjective sensations are absent. Angioneurosis and endocrine disorders are the principal causes of alopecia areata.

Congenital alopecia is rarely encountered; the manifestation of a developmental disorder, it is usually noticed at birth or in the first months of life. Premature alopecia is observed most often in men 20 to 25 years of age. The condition is characterized by the gradual, progressive loss of hair from the scalp. The skin in such cases becomes thin, and its texture, silky. In women affected with premature alopecia, only a thinning of hair occurs. In both men and women, senile alopecia progresses in a manner similar to premature alopecia but sets in at a later age (55–60 years). Senile alopecia is a result of normal physiological aging.

Treatment of alopecia involves the administering of vitamins A, B1, and B6, of hormones, and furocoumarin preparations—peucedanin, Beroksan, Ammifurin—in combination with ultraviolet irradiation. Topical measures include physiotherapy, massage, and rubbing with tinctures of cayenne pepper.

REFERENCES

Zalkind, E. S. Bolezni volos. [Leningrad] 1959.
Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvopo dermatovenerologii, vol. 3. Moscow, 1964.

I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER

alopecia

[‚a·lə′pē·shə]
(medicine)
Loss of hair; baldness.

alopecia

loss of hair, esp on the head; baldness
References in periodicals archive ?
Killing two birds with one stone: oral tofacitinib reverses alopecia universalis in a patient with plaque psoriasis.
Role of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene in alopecia areata: Strong association of a potentially functional AIRE polymorphism with alopecia universalis.
Previous work at Yale had shown that tofacitinib reversed alopecia universalis in a patient a who received the medication for plaque psoriasis, and that topical treatment with ruxolitinib, another janus kinase inhibitor, was effective in treating alopecia universalis.
60% patients were of extensive AA, and 20% each of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis.
The single-arm trial included seven patients with moderate to severe patchy AA and five patients with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis.
Exclusion criteria were: 1) patients with pregnancy, lactating mothers, 2) extensive (more than 3 patches) or atypical alopecia areata (alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis, diffuse), and 3) history of allergy to glucocorticoids or tacrolimus.
If categorized according to the extent of involvement following forms may be seen: Alopecia Areata, partial loss of scalp hair; Alopecia totalis, 100% loss of scalp hair; and Alopecia universalis, 100% loss of all body hair.
But since she was a teenager Sarah has been wracked with a lack of self-confidence and insecurity about her appearance after suffering from alopecia universalis ( total hair loss.
11 There are reports of abnormal thyroid function tests in patients with AA91012 as 8-10% cases of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis are reported with increased prevalence of thyroid dysfunction.
The hair loss can present as single delimited patches of hair loss (most common), multiple patches, or extensive hair loss, the disease is classified as follows: patchy AA, in which there is partial loss of scalp hair; alopecia totalis (AT), in which 100% of scalp hair is lost; or alopecia universalis (AU), in which there is 100% loss of all the body hair.